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Effects of human activity on the ecosystem

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Living Things in their Environment


1. Deforestation


  • soil erosion
  • flooding
  • loss of habitat
  • loss of valuable species
  • climatic changes
  • upsets oxygen and carbon dioxide balance

2. Air pollution

Caused by

  • burning of fossil fuel
  • exhaust fumes from motor vehicles
  • burning of garbage

3. Water pollution

Caused by

  • discharge of untreated sewage
  • discharge of inorganic waste
  • excessive use of chemical fertilizers
  • use of pesticides

Reasons for clearing forests/ deforestation

To provide:
  • land for cultivation, urban development, grazing
  • timber for construction and making paper
  • firewood


Pollution is the process by which harmful substances are added to the environment
  • air pollution from: forest fires, volcanic eruptions, biological decomposition, human activities
  • water pollution from: human activities


Conservation is necessary for the protection of plant and animal species to maintain a stable and balanced ecosystem

Conservation measures:

  • reducing or eliminating pollution through education and legislation
  • controlling growth of human population
  • conserving natural resources. Recycling important for conservation which conserves non-renewable natural resources but also
    • reduced the problem of waste disposal and environmental pollution
    • is economical as it saves energy and money
  • recovering wildlife, especially those species that are in danger of extinction