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Pakistan Studies

GCE ‘O’ LEVEL Pakistan Studies (2059) Paper 1 The History and Culture of Pakistan

Topical Question Bank N2001-N2011 with Examiner Comments and Marking Key
Compiled by: Muhammad Umar 

Cultural and historical background to the Pakistan Movement

Religious Thinkers

Q Why did Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barailvi wish to revive Islam in the sub-continent? [7] (N2002/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused few problems. The question focussed on the reasons why Syed Ahmed Barailvi wished to revive Islam. Many answers were to the point and relevant but there was a lot of unnecessary background information about Syed Ahmed Barailvi.

Q Why did Shah Wali Ullah wish to revive Islam in the sub-continent? [7] (J2003/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused a few problems. The question focused on the reasons why Shah Wali Ullah wished to revive Islam. Many answers were to the point and relevant but there was a lot of unnecessary background information about him or descriptions on what he did to revive Islam.

Q Why did Syed Ahmad Shaheed Barailvi have such a major influence on the revival of Islam in the sub-continent? [7] (N2003/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused a few problems. The question focused on the reasons why Syed Ahmed Barailvi had a major influence on the revival of Islam. Many answers were to the point and relevant, but there was a lot of unnecessary background information about Syed Ahmed Barailvi with a lot of emphasis on the battles he fought, most of which was irrelevant.

Q How important was Shah Wali Ullah in the spread of Islam in the Sub-Continent before 1850? Explain your answer. [14] (N2004/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) many candidates produced answers that failed to reach a Level 4 mark. The question posed was about the importance of Shah Wali Ullah. Most candidates only explained his contribution to the spread of Islam. The question ‘How important’ should have suggested to candidates that he was not the only person to contribute to the spread of Islam and therefore consider the roles of Syed Ahmad Shaheed Barailvi and Haji Shariat Ullah. As a result of adopting this approach a Level 4 mark could have been achieved.

Marking Scheme: Explains importance of work of a number of people (to include Shah Wali Ullah for maximum marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Shah Wali Ullah felt that the Muslims faced many problems because of their ignorance about Islam and the Holy Quran. He encouraged them to concentrate on Quranic teachings and helped them by translating the Holy Quran into Persian which was the main language of the Muslims at that time. His books were designed to spread the principles of Islam amongst the Muslims. However he was not the only one who was important in the spread of Islam at this time. Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brailvi spread Islam through the Jihad Movement, which was to become an armed struggle to liberate the Punjab and the NWFP from Sikh rule largely because Muslims were banned from prayer and had to undergo many humiliations, which made it difficult to practise their religion. Haji Shariat Ullah spread Islam through the Faraizi Movement which insisted that Muslims should perform their faraiz (religious obligations). This alarmed the Hindu landlords who were unhappy with the Muslim practices. A huge group of followers grew which were called ‘Faraizis’.

Q Why did Shah Wali Ullah have such an important influence on the revival of Islam in the subcontinent? [7] (N2005/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused few problems. The question focused on why Shah Wali Ullah had such an important influence on the revival of Islam in the sub-continent. Many answers were to the point and relevant, dealing with such issues as the translation of the Holy Quran, Quranic teachings and the need for strong leadership. However, for others a description of his career was the wrong way to deal with this question and attracted few marks.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons
Muslims had deteriorated into being a helpless and disorganised group of people and if they were to regain their power then strong leadership was required. He believed they were ignorant about Islam and the teachings of the Holy Quran. Therefore an emphasis on Quranic teachings would not only improve their knowledge but produce a feeling of solidarity. He also believed that Muslims’ knowledge of Islam was difficult to gain and so he felt that by translating the Holy Quran into Persian would enable more people to read it.

Q Was the work of Shah Wali Ullah the most important factor in the revival of Islam in the sub- continent during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2006/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) focused on why Shah Wali Ullah and others had such an important influence on the revival of Islam in the sub-continent. Many answers were to the point and relevant, dealing with such issues as the translation of the Holy Quran, Quranic teachings and the need for strong leadership. However, many failed to recognise that this question required them to address the work of others during this time. In consequence, their answers were restricted to a Level 3 mark. It is important that candidates read questions carefully and answer the one that has been set.

Marking Scheme: Explains 2 or more factors (SWU to be included for max marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

SWU felt that the Muslims faced many problems because of their ignorance about Islam and the Holy Quran. He encouraged them to concentrate on Quranic teachings and helped them by translating the Holy Quran into Persian which was the main language of the Muslims at that time. His books were designed to spread the principles of Islam amongst the Muslims. SASB spread Islam through the Jihad Movement, which was to become an armed struggle to liberate the Punjab and the NWF from Sikh rule largely because Muslims were banned from prayer and had to undergo many humiliations, which made it difficult to practise their religion. HSU spread Islam through the Faraizi Movement which insisted that Muslims should perform their faraiz (religious obligations). This alarmed the Hindu landlords who were unhappy with the Muslim practices. A huge group of followers grew which were called ‘Faraizis’.

Q Why were there attempts to revive Islam in the sub-continent during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries? [7] (N2007/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused a few problems. The question focused on the reasons why there were attempts to revive Islam. Many candidates misinterpreted this question and saw it as one that required details of the way in which Shah Wali Ullah and others revived Islam. Unless candidates were able to explain why these men did this then most of these answers were irrelevant. Therefore it is essential that candidates read the question carefully before attempting to answer it. However there were many candidates who were able to recognise the demands of the question and were able to answer it well and gain near or maximum marks.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
SWU believed that Muslims were ignorant about Islam and the teachings of the Holy Quran. Therefore an emphasis on Quranic teachings would not only improve their knowledge but produce a feeling of solidarity. He also believed that Muslims’ knowledge of Islam was difficult to gain and so he felt that by translating the Holy Quran into Persian would enable more people read it. SASB wanted a jihad (Holy War) to restore the Muslim faith. The Punjab was under Sikh rule and the Punjabi Muslims found it difficult to practise their religion and were humiliated by the Sikhs. HSU wanted to spread Islam through the Faraizi Movement which insisted that Muslims should perform their faraiz (religious obligations). This alarmed the Hindu landlords who were unhappy with the Muslim practices.

Q Was the work of Syed Ahmad Shaheed Barailvi the most important factor in the revival of Islam in the sub-continent during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2008/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c), the question focused on the work of such individuals as Syed Ahmad Shaheed Barailvi in the revival of Islam. Many answers were very relevant, dealing not just with the importance of Syed Ahmad, but with others such as Shah Wali Ullah and Haji Shariat Ullah. The crucial point of the question was the ways in which they were important in reviving Islam. Most candidates addressed this aspect of the question and so scored in Level 3 - or Level 4 if they dealt with more than one individual. Those who only wrote a description of an individual’s career could only score in Level 2.

Marking Scheme: Explains 2 or more factors (SASB to be included for max marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

SASB spread Islam through the Jihad Movement, which was to become an armed struggle to liberate the Punjab and the NWF from Sikh rule largely because Muslims were banned from prayer and had difficulties practising their religion. SWU felt that the Muslims faced many problems because of their ignorance about Islam and the Holy Quran. He encouraged them to concentrate on Quranic teachings and helped them by translating the Holy Quran into Persian which was the main language of the Muslims at that time. His books were designed to spread the principles of Islam amongst the Muslims. HSU spread Islam through the Faraizi Movement which insisted that Muslims should perform their faraiz (religious obligations). This alarmed some Hindu landlords who were unhappy that working time was being lost. A huge group of followers grew which were called ‘Faraizis’.

Q Did ShahWali Ullah contribute more to the spread of Islam than any one else in the subcontinent before 1850? Explain your answer. [14] (N2009/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) was usually answered well. The question focused on the contribution of figures such as Shah Wali Ullah to the spread of Islam before 1850. To reach a Level 4 mark, candidates had to ensure that they included the contribution of Shah Wali Ullah as well as other people since this was included in the stem of the question. The answer required candidates to explain the contribution of each person rather than describe their life, times and careers to achieve a good mark. Most candidates were able to do this but there was a significant minority who merely described their lives and at best were only able to achieve a top Level 2 mark which below half marks for this part question.

Marking Scheme: Explains importance of work of a number of people including SWU. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

SWU felt that the Muslims faced many problems because of their ignorance about Islam and the Holy Quran. He encouraged them to concentrate on Quranic teachings and helped them by translating the Holy Quran into Persian which was the main language of the Muslims at that time. His books were designed to spread the principles of Islam amongst the Muslims. However he was not the only one who was important in the spread of Islam at this time. SASB spread Islam through the Jihad Movement, which was to become an armed struggle to liberate the Punjab and the NWF from Sikh rule largely because Muslims were banned from prayer and had to undergo many humiliations, which made it difficult to practise their religion. HSU spread Islam through the Faraizi Movement which insisted that Muslims should perform their faraiz (religious obligations). This alarmed the Hindu landlords who were unhappy with the Muslim practices. A huge group of followers grew which were called ‘Faraizis’.

Q Was the work of Shah Wali Ullah the most important factor in the revival of Islam in the sub- continent during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (Specimen 2010/P1/1c)

Marking Scheme: Explains 2 or more factors (SWU to be included for max marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

SWU felt that Muslims faced many problems because of their ignorance about Islam and the Holy Quran. He encouraged them to concentrate on Quranic teachings and helped them by translating the Holy Quran into Persian which was the main language of the Muslims at that time. His books were designed to spread the principles of Islam amongst the Muslims. SASB spread Islam through the Jihad Movement, which was to become an armed struggle to liberate the Punjab and the NWF from Sikh rule largely because Muslims were banned from prayer while other regulations made it difficult to practise their faith. HSU spread Islam through the Faraizi Movement which insisted that Muslims should perform their faraiz (religious obligations). This alarmed some Hindu landlords who were unhappy with Muslim practices. A huge group of followers grew which were called ‘Faraizis’.

Q Why did Shah Wali Ullah have such a major influence on the revival of Islam in the subcontinent? [7] (J2010/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused few problems as most candidates were able to explain why Shah Wali Ullah had a major influence on the revival of Islam in the sub-continent. As a result, many candidates scored a Level 3 mark, often reaching the maximum allowable. However, the emphasis was on his influence on the revival of Islam rather than his career, about which many candidates wrote at length.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Muslims had deteriorated into being a helpless and disorganised group of people and if they were to regain their power then strong leadership was required. He believed they were ignorant about Islam and the teachings of the Holy Quran. Therefore an emphasis on Quranic teachings would not only improve their knowledge but produce a feeling of solidarity. He also believed that Muslims’ knowledge of Islam was difficult to gain and so he felt that by translating the Holy Quran into Persian would enable more people read it. Books written influenced the revival of Islam (examples).

Q Source: Generally, Muslims were pleased that Aurangzeb ruled according to Islam, but it had provoked anger and revolt from other religious groups, especially the Hindus. After his death Muslim power and influence over India began to disintegrate. A number of Muslim groups were set up. One of these was the Faraizi Movement.

What was the Faraizi Movement? [4] (N2010/P1/1a)

Examiner Comments: In part (a), the short answer question on the Faraizi Movement was well answered, with most candidates able to gain 3 or 4 marks.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:
Founded by Haji Shariat Ullah, to restore pride of Muslims, revive Islam, remove Hindu prac- tices in worship, emphasis on praying for past sins, promising to lead a righteous life in future, alarmed Hindus, work carried on by son.

Q Source: By the end of Aurangzeb’s reign the authority of the Mughal emperors was declining. Hindus were not happy with his reign and after his death, Muslim power and influence over India, which had been so strong, began to disintegrate. At this time Shah Wali Ullah was growing up.

Describe the achievements of Shah Wali Ullah in reviving Islam. [4] (J2011/P1/1a)

Examiner Comments: In part (a), the short answer question was well answered with most candidates gaining 3 or 4 marks on the achievements of Shah Wali Ullah in reviving Islam.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:

Promoted his message through writings, translated the Holy Quran into Persian which would enable more people read it, emphasised traditional values of their faith, stressed the impor- tance of following teachings of Quran, future developments built upon his teachings. Q Source: As the morale and commitment of Muslims increased it was inevitable that with the right leadership some Muslims would take part in more agitation against the British. It was clear that the Muslim identity in India would continue to gain strength. One such man was Titu Mir.

Who was Titu Mir? [4] (N2011/P1/1a)

Examiner Comments: In part (a), the short answer question on Titu Mir was rarely answered for full marks.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:
A disciple of Syed Ahmed, horrified by sufferings of Muslim farmers in West Bengal during 1830s, organised a stand against zamindars, set up his own rule near Calcutta with small army, provoked British and killed in battle 1831.

Q Did Haji Shariat Ullah contribute more to the spread of Islam than anyone else in the sub- continent before 1850? Explain your answer. [14] (N2011/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) was generally very well answered by most candidates who were knowledgeable about Hajji Shariat Ullah, Shah Walli Ullah and Syed Ahmad Shaheed Barailvi. Candidates were required to explain their contributions to the spread of Islam. Most candidates were able to explain their contributions and a high Level 4 mark was often achieved where candidates were able to explain all their contributions.

Marking Scheme: Explains 2 or more factors including HSU. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

HSU spread Islam through the Faraizi Movement which insisted that Muslims should perform their faraiz (religious obligations). This alarmed the Hindu landlords who were unhappy with the Muslim practices. A huge group of followers grew, who were called ‘Faraizis’. SWU felt that the Muslims faced many problems because of their ignorance about Islam and the Holy Quran. He encouraged them to concentrate on Quranic teachings and helped them by translating the Holy Quran into Persian, which was the main language of the Muslims at that time. His books were designed to spread the principles of Islam amongst the Muslims. SASB spread Islam through the Jihad Movement, which was to become an armed struggle to liberate the Punjab and the NWF from Sikh rule, largely because Muslims were banned from prayer and had to undergo many humiliations, which made it difficult to practise their religion. 

The Mughal Empire

Q Was the in-fighting between Aurangzeb’s successors the most important reason for the collapse of the Mughal Empire? Explain your answer. [14] (N2001/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) many candidates produced well-explained and relevant answers.

Q Briefly explain three reasons for the decline of the Mughal Empire. [7] (J2002/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused a few problems. The question focussed on the reasons why the Mughal Empire declined. Candidates generally were able to reach level 3 but it was dependent upon them explaining why the reason given caused the decline.

Q ‘Aurangzeb’s successors failed to live up to his courageous and determined personality.’ Was this the most important reason for the decline of the Mughal Empire? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2003/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) many candidates produced surprisingly poor answers. The question focused on the reasons for the decline of the Mughal Empire. Many candidates were able to agree that the successors of Aurangzeb failed to live up to his achievements and described in some detail their many failings. However, many were unable to explain other reasons for the decline of the Empire and wandered off the point by describing the expansion of the British influence in the sub-Continent or the work of Aurangzeb and/or other Emperors.

Q Why were the British able to replace the Mughals as the dominant force in the Sub-Continent by 1850? [7] (N2004/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused a few problems. The question focused on the reasons why the British were able to replace the Mughals as the dominant force in the Sub-Continent. Many candidates made the mistake of describing the reasons why the Mughal Empire declined which tended to focus on the poor quality of Aurangzeb’s successors. Unless this information was related to the British then the candidates failed to score more than one mark. Those candidates who answered the question well tended to focus on the superiority of the British over the Mughals at this time in terms of weapons, quality of leadership and troops.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons
The British were already becoming well established in the Sub-Continent and had gained much territory and so were well placed to take over from the Mughals. Due to the Industrial Revolution Britain had been able to stockpile weapons which were of superior quality to any of those which the Indians had. Also the troops were better disciplined, trained and organised and were able to establish their superiority without much opposition.

Q Were the weak and greedy characteristics of Aurangzeb’s successors the most important reasons for the collapse of the Mughal Empire? Explain your answer. [14] (N2005/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) many candidates produced excellent answers provided they explained their accounts. The question focused on the reasons for the collapse of the Mughal Empire. One set of reasons was given – the weak and greedy characteristics of Aurangzeb’s successors. It was essential that candidates explained why the reasons they gave contributed to the decline of the Empire. Merely describing the weak and greedy characteristics or other reasons was insufficient to gain many marks. It was pleasing to note that many candidates produced very good answers with much relevant material and that these candidates were able to access the highest marks. However for many candidates, Centres need to spend time with their candidates emphasising the need to deal with such reasons in the correct manner.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors (weak and greedy to be included for maximum marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
The Emperors were renowned for living an extravagant lifestyle and spending money with little thought to the effect it had on the economy of the Empire. This led to inefficiencies and a lack of interest in the running of the Empire. However there were other reasons. The absence of a definite line of succession led to a significant amount of in-fighting amongst his successors which, also led to instability and the downfall of the Empire. Other reasons included, A’s religious policy, the expense of fighting the Deccan Wars, degradation of the military, military inefficiency, financial inefficiencies, vastness of the Empire and Invasions.

Q Explain why the Mughal Empire declined following the reign of Aurangzeb. [7] (J2006/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused a few problems. The question focused on the reasons why the Mughal Empire declined following the reign of Aurangzeb. Many answers were to the point and relevant, dealing with such issues as the absence of a law of succession, lazy and corrupt successors, lack of finance and the superiority of the British etc. However, many candidates were unable to explain why (for example) the absence of a law of succession led to the decline of the Mughal Empire. Clearly these candidates were unable to gain very much credit for these answers beyond Level 2.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Aurangzeb’s successors became lazy, weak and corrupt and left the administration to their ministers who often put their own interests first. There was no law of succession. Instead there was usually a struggle for succession which ended in war. Succession often depended upon the ability of the candidates and the support they could get. Fighting wars became expensive and the military was stretched and suffered much inefficiency. The successors failed to run the Empire effectively becoming very extravagant and so suffered from financial inefficiencies. The vastness of the Empire made it hard to defend and as such suffered several invasions. Eventually the British overran the Empire and were superior in such areas as military might.

Q ‘The coming of the British was the main reason for the decline of the Mughal Empire’. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2007/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: The part (c) question focused on reasons why the Mughal Empire declined. Many answers were to the point, dealing with various causal factors, such as the absence of a law of succession, poor-quality imperial successors to Aurangzeb (or even Shah Jehan), lack of finance, the loss of territory to foreign invaders (Persia and Afghanistan) and internal rivals (rising Maratha power) as well as the factor given in the question: the power of the British. However, many candidates were unable to explain why (for example) the absence of a law of succession led to the decline of the Mughal Empire. This is not a new problem. Although candidates know many facts about the decline of the Empire, they are often unable to apply their knowledge to explain why some of them caused its downfall. If answers fail to do this, they will not be able to gain much credit. Descriptive answers cannot rise beyond level 2.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors. The British to be included for maximum marks. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
The British expansion into the sub-continent was limited, but their forces and equipment were no match for the Mughals who fell into rapid decline as a result. However there were other reasons. The Emperors were renowned for living an extravagant lifestyle and spending money with little thought to the effect it had on the economy of the Empire. This led to inefficiencies and a lack of interest in the running of the Empire. The absence of a definite line of succession led to a significant amount of in-fighting amongst potential successors, which also led to instability and contributed to the downfall of the Empire. Other reasons included, Aurangzeb’s religious policy, the expense of fighting the Deccan Wars, degradation of the military, military inefficiency, financial inefficiencies, vastness of the Empire and invasions by the Persians and Afghans.

Q Explain why the successors of Aurangzeb failed to prevent the decline of the Mughal Empire. [7] (N2008/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) did cause a few problems. The question focused on the reasons why the successors of Aurangzeb failed to prevent the decline of the Mughal Empire. On the surface, this should have been a straightforward question and there were many who recognised the demands of the question, answered it well and gained near or maximum marks. Others, however, failed to see what the question asked for. If candidates merely identify the reasons why (e.g. corrupt, weak successors, no law of succession, the rise of the Marathas, the rise of the British, etc.), then they could only ever achieve a Level 2 mark. The art of a good answer to such a question, whether set as a part (b) or (c), is to explain why these reasons failed to prevent the decline of the Empire. The question did NOT ask candidates to identify the reasons. And it certainly didn’t ask them to describe how ineffective or corrupt various successors were.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Aurangzeb’s successors tended to be lazy, weak and corrupt, leaving the administration to their ministers who often put their own interests first. There was no law of succession. Instead there was usually a struggle for succession which ended in war. Succession often depended upon the ability of the candidates and the support they could get. Fighting wars was very expensive and the military was stretched and suffered much inefficiency. These emperors failed to run the Empire effectively, becoming very extravagant and so suffered from financial inefficiencies. The vastness of the Empire made it hard to defend and as such suffered several invasions from stronger rivals. Eventually the British overran the Empire and were superior in such areas as military might.

Q ‘The policies of Aurangzeb were the main reason for the decline of the Mughal Empire.’ Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2009/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) on the reasons why the Mughal Empire declined was generally well answered but to reach a Level 4 mark, candidates had to ensure that they included the policies of Aurangzeb as well as other reasons since this was included in the stem of the question. However for the weaker candidates there was a similar problem to previous years whereby those candidates who merely identified the reasons why the Empire declined e.g. corrupt, weak successors, no law of succession, the British etc. then they would only ever achieve a Level 2 mark. As explained in previous years the art of a good answer to this or any part (c) question, is to explain why, for example, these reasons failed to prevent the decline of the Empire. However on the other hand, there were many candidates who were able to recognise the demands of the question, were able to answer it well and gain near or maximum marks.

Marking Scheme: Explains more than one factor including Aurangzeb’s policies. Also pro- duces a judgement or evaluation.
Aurangzeb had an intolerant attitude to non-Muslims. He introduced a tax on non-Muslims called the Jizya. He destroyed Hindu temples and tried to ban Hindu practices. Taxation was high as he had to pay for the cost of military campaigns such as the Deccan Wars and he spent highly on luxurious palaces. Because of these he became an unpopular rule. After his death Mughal Emperors were renowned for living an extravagant lifestyle and spending money with little thought to the effect it had on the economy of the Empire. This led to inefficiencies and a lack of interest in the running of the Empire. The absence of a definite line of succession led to a significant amount of in-fighting amongst his successors which, also led to instability and the downfall of the Empire.

Q Explain why the Mughal Empire declined following the death of Aurangzeb. [7] (N2010/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) did cause a few problems for some candidates. The question focused on the reasons why the Mughal Empire decline following the death of Aurangzeb. On the surface this should have been an easy question, especially as it appears to be a well known topic. However, this question seemed to confuse many candidates. If candidates merely identify the reasons why the Empire declined e.g. corrupt, weak successors, no law of succession, the British etc., then they will only ever achieve a Level 2 mark. The art of a good answer to this question, whether it is set as a part (b) or (c) one, is to explain why these reasons failed to prevent the decline of the Empire. The question does NOT ask for candidates to identify the reasons or describe how weak or corrupt the successors were, for a high level mark.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.

Aurangzeb’s successors became lazy, weak and corrupt and left the administration to their ministers who often put their own interests first. There was no law of succession. Instead there was usually a struggle for succession which ended in war. Succession often depended upon the ability of the candidates and the support they could get. Fighting wars became expensive and the military was stretched and suffered much inefficiency. The successors failed to run the Empire effectively, becoming very extravagant and so suffered from financial inefficiencies. The vastness of the Empire made it hard to defend and as such suffered several invasions. Eventually the British overran the Empire and were superior in such areas as military might. However, there were many candidates who were able to recognise the demands of the question, and were able to answer it well and gain near or maximum marks.

Q ‘The spread of Marathan power was the main reason for the decline of the Mughal Empire.’ Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2011/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) focused on the reasons for the decline of the Mughal Em- pire. Most candidates had little problem in answering this question as their knowledge was very good. However, to achieve the maximum mark they needed to write more about the Marathans after dealing with the other well known reasons. Many candidates wrote little about the Marathans, and therefore few candidates were able to score more than the maximum of 10 marks for Level 3. There were also those candidates who wrote largely descriptive answers. These answers identified the reasons why the Empire declined, e.g. corrupt, weak successors, no law of succession, the British etc., and achieved a mark in Level 2. To achieve a mark in a higher level for a part (b) or part (c) question, answers need to explain why these reasons failed to prevent the decline of the Empire.

Marking Scheme: Explains more than one reason including Marathan power. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

There were a number of reasons for the Empire’s decline. The Marathas were skilful Hindu guerrilla fighters who defeated a Mughal army in 1737 and took control of Delhi and eastwards towards Bengal. By 1760 they were the most powerful people in India and nothing could the Mughals do to stop it. However, there were other reasons for the decline. Auranzeb had an intolerant attitude to non-Muslims. He introduced a tax on non-Muslims called the Jizya. He destroyed Hindu temples and tried to ban Hindu practices. Taxation was high as he had to pay for the cost of military campaigns such as the Deccan Wars and he spent highly on luxurious palaces. Because of these he became an unpopular rule. After his death Mughal Emperors were renowned for living an extravagant lifestyle and spending money with little thought to the effect it had on the economy of the Empire. This led to inefficiencies and a lack of interest in the running of the Empire. The absence of a definite line of succession led to a significant amount of in-fighting amongst his successors, which also led to instability and the downfall of the Empire. The British expansion into the sub- continent was rapid and their forces and equipment were no match for the Mughals, who fell into rapid decline as a result. 

War of Independence

Q Why did the War of Independence of 1857 fail? [7] (J2002/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), most candidates knew the reasons why the War of Inde- pendence failed and were able to score well if they were able to explain why these resulted in failure.

Q ‘The War of Independence of 1857 achieved nothing’. Give reasons why you might agree and disagree with this statement. [14] (N2002/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) most candidates produced poor answers. The question focussed on the results of the War of Independence but for most candidates this was ignored and much irrelevant material was written on the causes or course of the War. If candidates are to succeed with questions similar to this, then rote learning and the reproduction of vast amounts of knowledge, which does little to answer the question, will simply not achieve the required standard.

Q ‘The War of Independence of 1857 was caused by the greased cartridge incident’. Give reasons why you might agree and disagree with this statement. [14] (J2003/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) most candidates produced good answers provided they explained their accounts. The question focused on the causes of the War of Independence and most candidates produced good answers with much relevant material. However, candidates had to explain how the reason cited caused the War in order to access the higher marks. Many candidates were able to do this with little problem but for others lists of reasons were much in evidence, often in bullet points and with sub headings.

Q ‘AlackofunityandcoordinationwasthemainreasonforthefailureoftheWarofIndependence by 1858.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2004/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) many candidates produced good answers provided they explained their accounts. The question focused on the failure of the War of Independence and many candidates produced good answers with much relevant material. However, other candidates mistook failure for causes and wrote irrelevantly about these, again failing to score any marks. However, it was pleasing to note that those candidates who did interpret the question correctly did attempt to explain their answers thereby accessing the higher marks.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors. Also produces a judgement or evaluation. There was a lack of unity and common cause amongst the Indian population. The Punjab were uninterested in helping the rebellion and actually sent men and supplies to help the British. This also happened in Kashmir. The British had more modern methods of fighting and the army was better disciplined as well as being supplied by some of the local rulers.

Q ‘The introduction of social reforms by the British, such as education, caused the War of Inde- pendence in 1857.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2005/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) focused on the reasons for the War of Independence in 1857. Again a reason had been given – social reform especially education. The question required candidates to explain why such reasons led to the War. They were not required to describe such reforms on their own. Many candidates described such reforms as the introduction of English, co-educational schools, the abolition of suttee, the Doctrine of Lapse and of course the greased cartridges! Without an explanation of why such factors upset the Indians and thus eventually led to the War, credit was hard to come by. As a result most answers were merely descriptive and only partially relevant, often gaining less than half marks as a result. However for those candidates who had been adequately prepared for the examination this question caused few problems for them. Answers from these candidates were focused, accurate and relevant but above all very high scoring.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two reasons (social reform including education to be explained for maximum marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
A number of social reforms had been imposed by the British without consultation or care for local feeling which caused much unrest. Indians had to send their children to co-educational schools which was hated since it appeared to impose the British system on the Indians without due regard to their religious and cultural feelings. They were also forced to abandon purdha which had been an Indian custom for centuries. The replacement of Persian and Sanskrit by English as the official language in 1832 deeply upset both the Muslim and Hindus. In 1852 the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ was introduced and caused great unrest because any local kingdom not having a direct male heir was taken over by the British. A new cartridge was introduced by the British which was coated in both cow and pig fat. Because the soldiers had to chew the fat caused great resentment since pig fat was forbidden by the Muslims and the cow was a sacred animal in the eyes of the Hindus.

Q ‘The establishment of English as the official language of the sub-continent in 1834 was the main reason for the War of Independence of 1857’. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2007/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) asked candidates to assess the relative importance of various reasons for the War of Independence of 1857-58. Most knew a large number of facts, but many merely listed them. The point of the question was to enable candidates to explain why these reasons caused the War. That is not the same thing as describing (for example) what the Doctrine of Lapse was.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two. English to be explained for maximum marks. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

The replacement of Persian and Sanskrit by English as the official language in the 1830s deeply upset both the Muslims and Hindus. A number of social reforms had been imposed by the British without consultation or care for local feeling which caused much unrest. Indians had to send their children to co-educational schools which was hated since it appeared to impose the British system on the Indians without due regard to their religious and cultural feelings. They were also forced to abandon purdha which had been an Indian custom for centuries. The ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ was gradually introduced, especially under Dalhousie, and caused great unrest because any local kingdom not having a direct male heir was taken over by the British. A new musket cartridge was introduced by the British which was coated in both cow and pig fat. Because the soldiers had to chew the fat caused great resentment since pig fat was forbidden to the Muslims and the cow was a sacred animal in the eyes of the Hindus.

Q Why did the War of Independence of 1857 fail? [7] (N2007/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), candidates were required to explain why the war of In- dependence failed. Most candidates found this relatively easy and were able to score near maximum marks. However it was important that candidates did explain why the reason given was a reason for the War’s failure rather than merely describe the reason. However there were a minority of candidates who failed to understand the question and though they had to describe/explain the reasons why the war started and so gained few marks.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
There was a lack of unity and common cause amongst the Indian population. The Punjab were uninterested in helping the rebellion and actually sent men and supplies to help the British. This also happened in Kashmir. The British had more modern methods of fighting and the army was better disciplined as well as being supplied by some of the local rulers.

Q ‘Religious factors were more important than any other in causing the War of Independence of 1857-58.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2008/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) focused on the causes of the War of Independence. This should have offered many candidates the opportunity of achieving a near maximum mark which, together with a relatively mainstream topic in part (b) of this question, should have resulted in a total mark of approaching 23 or 24. However, the same principles applied to part (c) as part (b): to achieve Level 4, a candidate needed to explain why the reasons offered were causes of the War and NOT merely identify them or describe what each one was. For example, the description of the way English was introduced was insufficient to achieve high marks unless it was linked to why this might have caused offence. This was a common problem for many candidates.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors. English to be explained for maximum marks. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Christian missionaries came to India to convert the local population as well as set up schools. In these schools the missionaries taught Christianity and expected local religions to be given up which was resented by Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs alike. The replacement of Persian and Sanskrit by English as the official language in the 1830s deeply upset both the Muslims and Hindus. A number of social reforms had been imposed by the British without consultation or care for local feeling which caused much unrest. Indians had to send their children to co- educational schools which was hated since it appeared to impose the British system on the Indians without due regard to their religious and cultural feelings. They were also forced to abandon purdha which had been an Indian custom for centuries. The ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ caused great unrest because any local kingdom not having a direct male heir was taken over by the British. A new cartridge was introduced by the British which was coated in both cow and pig fat. Because the soldiers had to chew the fat, this caused great resentment since pig fat was forbidden by the Muslims while the cow was a sacred animal in the eyes of the Hindus.

Q Explain the reasons for the failure of the War of Independence 1857-58. [7] (N2009/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) did cause a few problems. The question focused on the reasons why the War of Independence failed. On the surface this should have been an easy question. However this question seemed to confuse some candidates. Instead of explaining such reasons as a lack of unity and the modern methods of fighting by the British, candidates wrote at length about the reason why the war was caused and as a result scored only one mark at most. This illustrates a very important learning point that candidates must ensure they read the question carefully and ensure that they are answering the question correctly.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
There was a lack of unity and common cause amongst the Indian population. The Punjab was uninterested in helping the rebellion and actually sent men and supplies to help the British. This also happened in Kashmir. The British had more modern methods of fighting and the army was better disciplined as well as being supplied by some of the local rulers.

Q Was a lack of unity amongst the Indians the main reason for the failure of the War of Indepen- dence 1857-1858? Explain your answer. [14] (J2010/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) the question focused on the reasons for the failure of the War of Independence. Most candidates had little problem in answering this question as their knowledge was very good, although the maximum mark was not often achieved since many were unable to write much about other reasons after dealing with the British factor. The lack of unity argument was competently addressed by most. Thus a common level achieved for this answer was Level 4, with many candidates achieving at least 10 or 11 marks. However, there were those candidates who misunderstood the question and wrote erroneously about the causes of the war. As a result, these candidates gained little or no credit for their answers.

Marking Scheme: Explains more than one reason including a lack of unity. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
There was a lack of unity and common cause amongst the Indian population. The Punjab was uninterested in helping the rebellion and actually sent men and supplies to help the British. This also happened in Kashmir. The British had more modern methods of fighting and the army was better disciplined as well as being supplied by some of the local rulers.

Q Source: In 1857, a number of sepoys refused to use the new cartridges at Meerut, near Delhi. The sepoys were given long prison sentences and this led to a revolt in which their fellow sepoys marched on Delhi and massacred all the British they could find. Things got worse for the British at Kanpur.

What happened at the battle of Kanpur? [4] (J2011/P1/2a)

Examiner Comments: The vast majority of candidates scored few or no marks in part (a), since Kanpur was unknown to most of them. They failed to note that Kanpur is, in fact, Cawnpore which they may well have known, although in modern day textbooks it is now referred to as Kanpur.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:

Troops joined revolt, killed their officers, led by Nana Sahib, British held out for 3 weeks, then surrendered, soldiers and 300 women and children slaughtered, remainder kept as prisoners, reinforcements arrived and prisoners killed, British carried out acts of revenge, Sahib escaped.

Q Why did the Indians not achieve independence in 1857? [7] (N2011/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) did cause a few problems for some candidates. The question focused on the reasons why the Indians failed to achieve independence in 1857. There were many candidates who were able to recognise the demands of the question and were able to answer it well and gain near or maximum marks. A few gained lower marks as they wrote about the causes of the War, rather than the reasons for its failure.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.

There was a lack of unity and common cause amongst the Indian population. The Punjab was uninterested in helping the rebellion and actually sent men and supplies to help the British. This also happened in Kashmir. The British had more modern methods of fighting and the army was better disciplined as well as being supplied by some of the local rulers. 

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan

Q Which of the following was the most important contribution of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan in restoring the position of Muslims in the sub-continent:

(i) attempts to achieve a better understanding between the British and the Muslims; (ii) education;

(iii) politics?
Explain your answer with reference to all three of the above. [14] (N2003/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: However, in part (c) many candidates fared better and were able to clearly and precisely explain how Sir Ahmed Khan restored the position of Muslims through the given events. This was probably the best-answered question on the paper, with some excellent answers. However, it was surprising how many candidates had only a hazy knowledge of his work and were less confident in answering this question - but it is important to note that these were firmly in a very small minority.

Q Was the attempt to achieve a better understanding with the British the most important contri- bution that Sir Syed Ahmed Khan made to the Muslim cause during the nineteenth century? Explain your answer. [14] (J2005/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) many candidates produced excellent answers provided they explained their accounts. The question focused on the contribution of Sir Syed to the Muslim cause and many candidates produced very good answers with much relevant material. It was pleasing to note that those candidates who did attempt to answer the question were able to access the higher marks.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors (better understanding to be included for maximum marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
He wrote a number of books following the War of Independence in which he tried to show the British that the Muslims were only partly to blame and that there many who were supporters of the British government. He suggested that the British should try to understand Muslims better. He gave explanation of the word ’Nadarath’ in an attempt to remove the misunderstanding of the British about the Muslims. He also attempted to improve the position of Muslims through education. He established a Muslim college which led to the Muslim-Anglo Oriental College in 1876 . This became the University of Aligarh which became important in Pakistani history as providing an education for many of its future leaders. In politics he believed that Muslims would never win any election because of the Hindu majority population. He therefore advocated separate seats and a separate electorate which was the forerunner of the future demand for a separate homeland.

Q ‘Sir Syed Ahmed Khan’s political beliefs had a greater impact on the Muslims than any of his other beliefs’. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2007/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) was usually answered well. This question focused on the work of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s work. For those candidates who had revised and had adequately prepared for the examination this question caused few problems for them. Answers from these candidates were focused, accurate and relevant and most scored a high level 4 mark.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors. Political writings to be explained for maximum marks. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
In politics he believed that Muslims would never win any election because of the Hindu majority population. He therefore advocated separate seats and a separate electorate which was the forerunner of the future demand for a separate homeland. He wrote a number of books following the War of Independence in which he tried to show the British that the Muslims were only partly to blame and that there many who were supporters of the British government. He suggested that the British should try to understand Muslims better. He gave explanation of the word ’Nadarath’ in an attempt to remove the misunderstanding of the British about the Muslims. He also attempted to improve the position of Muslims through education. He established a Muslim college which led to the Muslim-Anglo Oriental College in 1876. This became the University of Aligarh which became important in Pakistani history as providing an education for many of its future leaders.

Q Why did Sir Syed Ahmad Khan wish to develop a better understanding with the British following the War of Independence (1857-58)? [7] (J2008/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), the question focused on the reasons why Syed Ahmad Khan wished to develop a better understanding with the British. The important word in this question was why, not how. For those adequately prepared for the examination, this caused few problems and many of their answers were accurate and relevant, scoring a good mark within Level 3. However, those candidates who felt the question required a ‘how’ approach and proceeded to write all they knew about the way Syed tried to develop a better understanding with the British ensured that their answers were only partially relevant, and so often failed to gain Level 3.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
If they were to improve their poor status then the Muslims had to accept more British ideas and take advantage of British education. He wanted to improve their social and economic conditions by taking up posts in the civil service and the army. If they didn’t do these things then they would see others prosper instead.

Q Was the development of a western education system the most important contribution of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in developing the cause of Muslims during the nineteenth century? Explain your answer. [14] (J2009/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) was generally very well answered by most who were knowl- edgeable about Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. Candidates were required to explain his contributions to the cause of the Muslims which included the development of a western education system. Again the crucial part of the question hinged on explaining his contributions rather than de- scribing his career. A mere description of this could result in only a Level 2 mark. However, most were able to explain his contributions and a Level 4 mark was achieved where candidates were able to explain his contributions through education and other aspects of his work, such as religion and politics.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least TWO factors, including education. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
He attempted to improve the position of Muslims through education. In 1863 he founded the Scientific Society at Ghazipore. He wanted to make scientific writings available to Muslims by translating them from English into Urdu. He established a Muslim college which led to the Muslim-Anglo Oriental College in 1876. This became the University of Aligarh which became important in Pakistani history as providing an education for many of its future leaders. He also made a contribution in politics. He believed that Muslims would never win any election because of the majority of the population was Hindu. He therefore advocated separate seats Muslim and a separate Muslim electorate, which was the forerunner of the future demand for a separate Muslim homeland. He wrote a number of books following the War of Independence in which he tried to show the British that the Muslims were only partly to blame and that there many who were supporters of the British government. He suggested that the British should try to understand Muslims better. He explained ‘Nadarath’ in an attempt to remove British misunderstanding of Muslims.

Q Were the religious views of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan his most important contribution in developing the cause of Muslims during the nineteenth century? Explain your answer. [14] (N2010/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) was generally very well answered by most candidates who were knowledgeable about Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. Candidates were required to explain his contributions to the cause of the Muslims, which included his religious views. Again, the crucial part of the question hinged on explaining his contributions rather than describing his career. A mere description of this resulted in only a Level 2 mark. However, most candidates were able to explain his contributions and a Level 4 mark was achieved where candidates were able to explain his contributions through religion and other aspects of his work such as education and politics.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors including religion. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

He believed that relations with the British could be improved by improving the understanding of Christianity by Muslims. He tried to overcome this by writing Tabyin-ul-Kalam, in which he pointed out the similarities between Islam and Christianity. He was also aware that the British knew little about Islam and was offended by a book he read in Britain on the life of the Prophet and as a result he wrote his own work correcting the many errors he had read. However he contributed many other things. He attempted to improve the position of Muslims through education. In 1863 he founded the Scientific Society at Ghazipore. He wanted to make scientific writings available to Muslims by translating them from English into Urdu. He established a Muslim college which led to the Muslim-Anglo Oriental College in 1876. This became the University of Aligarh which became important in Pakistani history as providing an education for many of its future leaders. He also made a contribution in politics. He believed that Muslims would never win any election because of the Hindu majority population. He therefore advocated separate seats and a separate electorate which was the forerunner of the future demand for a separate homeland. He wrote a number of books following the War of Independence in which he tried to show the British that the Muslims were only partly to blame and that there were many who were supporters of the British government. He suggested that the British should try to understand Muslims better. He gave an explanation of the word ’Nadarath’ in an attempt to remove the misunderstanding of the British about the Muslims.

Q Why did Sir Syed Ahmad Khan found the Aligarh Movement? [7] (J2011/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), the question focused on the reasons why Sir Syed Ahmad Khan founded the Aligarh Movement. For candidates who had prepared well this caused few or no problems and many answers were accurate and relevant and scored maximum marks. The majority of candidates were able to reach Level 3 by explaining at least one reason for the foundation of the Movement.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
He wanted to improve relations between the British and Muslims by getting rid of British doubts about Muslim loyalty and Muslim doubts about the British. He also wanted to improve the social and economic position of Muslims by getting them to receive Western education and take up posts in the civil service and army. He also wanted them to increase their political awareness to make them aware of the threat to from the Hindu policy of cooperation with the British.

Q Source: Sir Syed Ahmad Khan admired many British ways of doing things. At the same time he had a great faith in the Muslim religion. He was convinced that if the British ever left India the Muslims would be dominated by the overwhelming Hindu majority. He decided to do something about this. He published a pamphlet called ‘The Loyal Mohammedans of India.’

What was ‘The Loyal Mohammedans of India’? [4] (N2011/P1/2a)

Examiner Comments: Most candidates were able to score 3 or 4 marks in part (a) on the Loyal Mohammedans of India and showed good knowledge of this pamphlet.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:

To bring about better relations between British and Muslims, told British that Muslims were not opposed to them, British shouldn’t discriminate against them as Muslims were wrongly blamed for violence, try to understand and respect Muslim beliefs, should consult with Indians. 

British Rule

Q How successful was Indian resistance to British attempts to take control of lands in the sub-continent? Explain your answer. [14] (J2002/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) the question focussed on how successful Indian resistance was to British attempts to take control of lands. Rather than focussing on the success or otherwise of Indian resistance many candidates tended to give a narrative of British attempts to take control of lands. Few candidates were able to show how successful Indian attempts were by producing a balanced answer on successes and failures. Most answers tended to focus on failures.

Q Why did the British Government take control of the affairs of the East India Company in the early nineteenth century? [7] (J2004/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused quite a few problems. The question focused on the reasons why the British Government wished to take control of the East India Company. Many answers were to the point and relevant, but for others the point of the question was misunderstood. Many candidates tried to explain why the East India Company wished to trade in the Sub-Continent rather than the British Government which was incorrect. Clearly these candidates were unable to gain any credit for these answers.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons
The volume of trade became so significant that the British government felt it was too valuable an asset to leave in the hands of a private company even though the EIC was now holding its possessions in trust for them. Also the fear of Russian expansion in Central Asia worried the government and so Britain decided to shape its foreign policy by further expansion towards Afghanistan to counter this threat. As Britain was becoming more involved prestige began to be at stake and further expansion became inevitable especially after the defeat by the Afghans at Kabul.

Q Explain why the East India Company became involved in the Indian sub-continent during the seventeenth century. [7] (J2005/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused a few problems. The question focused on the reasons why the East India Company became involved in the sub-continent. Many answers were to the point and relevant, dealing with such issues as trade, British strategy and missionaries amongst others. However, for others the point of the question was misunderstood. Many candidates concentrated only on trade whilst others rambled on about British rule in India into the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries or gave reasons for the downfall of the Mughal Empire. Clearly these candidates were unable to gain very much credit for these answers.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons
Traders reported evidence of immense wealth in the sub- Continent which led to the Company establishing a trading base there since they saw a profitable future. The English wanted to establish its influence in the sub-Continent and to oust the Dutch and Portuguese.

Q Why was Britain so successful in expanding its control of the sub-continent between 1750 and 1850? [7] (N2006/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused few problems. The question focused on the reasons why Britain was so successful in expanding its control of the sub-continent. Many answered this question well and were able to gain maximum marks. However, there were a few who saw this question as one that required details of why the Mughal Empire declined. Whilst this was partially relevant, it did require candidates to explain the reason given rather than merely describe some of them.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
The battles of Plassey and Buxar gave the British the vast riches of Bengal and favourable trad- ing rights with the local nawabs. This provided massive new resources which the British could use to consolidate control. The British also introduced governors-general into the provinces who administered them on British lines and provided yet more control. The British army using its vast local resources and superior weapons and skills was increasingly taking control of more land.

Q Why did the Indian sub-continent attract European traders in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries? [7] (J2007/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused few problems as most were able to explain why the Indian sub-continent attracted European traders. However, many answers focused solely on the East India Company and the British and failed to take into account those other European countries which were also attracted to the sub-continent, notably the French.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Traders reported evidence of immense wealth in the sub-Continent which led to the EIC estab- lishing a trading base there since they saw a profitable future. The English wanted to establish their influence in the sub-Continent and to oust the Dutch and Portuguese.

Q ‘IndianresistancetoBritishattemptstotakecontroloflandsinthesub-continentinthehundred years before 1850 was totally unsuccessful.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2008/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) took a slightly different approach from previous questions. Candidates were required to explain how successful (or not) Indian resistance was to British attempts to take control of lands in the sub-continent. Many candidates knew many facts about British military victories, but that was not the point of the question. Most candidates failed to see this and so failed to achieve a mark beyond Level 2. At best, such candidates reached low Level 3 by making the point that the British were able to take control because of their superior strength, etc. This claim often came at the end of a long description of various eighteenth and early nineteenth century battles, and often seemed to be a throw-away comment that was not built upon. A further problem was that many candidates ignored the dates of the question, writing about events before 1700 and after 1850 – all, alas, irrelevant.

Marking Scheme: Explains successes AND failures. Also produces a judgement or evalua- tion.
Successes:
power of local Nawabs
early successes of Tipu Sultan
Ranjit Singh
Failures:
strength of British army
eventual failure of Tipu Sultan and Ranjit Singh
conquests of British against weaker opposition

Q Explain why the East India Company got involved in the sub-continent during the seventeenth century. [7] (J2009/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused few problems as most candidates were able to explain why the East India Company got involved in the sub-continent. As a result many candidates scored a Level 3 mark, often reaching the maximum allowable.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Traders reported evidence of immense wealth in the sub-Continent which led to the EIC es- tablishing a trading base there since they saw a profitable future. It also wanted to establish its influence in the sub-Continent and to oust the Dutch and Portuguese. The EIC also wanted to establish a strategic port in the sub-continent that would protect its trading interests there.

Q Why was Britain successful in increasing its control of some parts of the sub-continent in the years 1750 to 1850? [7] (J2009/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In (b), the question focused on the reasons why the British were successful in increasing its control of some parts of the sub-continent. For those candidates who had been well prepared for the examination this caused few problems for them and many answers from these candidates were accurate and relevant scoring a good mark within Level 3.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
The Battles of Plassey and Buxar gave the British the vast riches of Bengal and favourable trading rights with the local nawabs. This provided massive new resources which the British could use to consolidate its control. The British also introduced governors-general into the provinces who administered them on British lines and provided yet more control. The East India Company army, using its vast local resources and superior weapons and skills, was increasingly taking control of more land. The Indian states were disunited politically and militarily – a situation of which the British took full advantage.

Q Source: Anger over British control of parts of the sub-continent had been growing over many years during the first half of the nineteenth century. The introduction of the Doctrine of Lapse was especially hated by the Indians.

What was the Doctrine of Lapse? [4] (Specimen 2010/P1/1a)

Marking Scheme: Reward each correct statement with 1 mark. 2 marks can be awarded for a developed statement. Candidates may refer to:

Governor-General Dalhousie is most associated with it (accept statements that he introduced it because most books incorrectly assert this), extended British control, when a ruler died without a natural heir the British would annex his lands, e.g. Oudh.

Q Why was Britain so successful in expanding its control of increasing parts of the sub-continent between 1750 and 1850? [7] (Specimen 2010/P1/1b)

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
The battles of Plassey and Buxar gave the British the vast riches of Bengal and favourable trading rights with the local nawabs. This provided massive new resources which the British could use to consolidate its control. The British also introduced governors-general into the provinces who administered them on British lines and provided yet more control. The East India Company army using its vast local resources and superior weapons and skills were increasingly taking control of more land. Weakness of Mughal Empire. Princely rulers divided, some cooperating with the British.

Q Source: With the slow crumbling of the Mughal Empire, the only question left in the early eighteenth century was who would pick up the pieces. Few observers could have guessed that the East India Company would have played such a major role.

What was the East India Company? [4] (J2010/P1/1a)

Examiner Comments: In part (a), the short answer question was well–answered with most candidates gaining 3 or 4 marks. Knowledge on the East India Company was sound, although several candidates attributed the granting of the charter to Queen Victoria rather than Elizabeth I!

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:
A trading company, Charter granted in 1600 by Queen Elizabeth I, landed at Surat in 1608, permission to trade in 1612, headquarters moved to Bombay in 1664. Grew in power during 18th Century.

Q Why did the East India Company became involved in the Indian sub-continent during the seventeenth century? [7] (N2010/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused few problems. The question focused on the reasons why the East India Company became involved in the Indian sub-continent. Most candidates were able to explain why the East India Company got involved in the sub-continent and as a result many scored a Level 3 mark, often reaching the maximum allowable.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Reports of immense wealth in the sub-continent led to the Company establishing a trading base there as they saw a profitable future. The English wanted to establish its influence in the sub-continent and to oust the Dutch and Portuguese. The EIC also wanted to establish a strategic port in the sub-continent that would protect its trading interests there and in the Far East.

Q How successful were the British attempts to take control of lands in the sub-continent between 1750 and 1856? [14] (N2010/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c), candidates were required to explain how successful British attempts were in taking control of lands in the sub-continent. Many candidates knew a large number of facts about the battles fought in which the British conquered the sub-continent but this was not the point of the question. A mere description of these events only resulted in a Level 2 mark. The point of the question was to enable candidates to explain either how the British were successful or otherwise in taking control of the lands of the sub-continent. Most candidates failed to see the point of the question and merely described all they knew about the events and personalities of the period. At best candidates reached a low Level 3 mark by making the point that the British were able to take control because of their superior strength etc. This often came at the end of a long description of the various battles that took place during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, often seemingly as a throwaway comment. Centres MUST ensure that candidates are equipped with the skills to recognise the demands of such a question if they are to achieve the higher marks available in part (c).

Marking Scheme: Explains both. Also produces a judgement or evaluation. 

Successes:
Strength of British Army.
Eventual failure of Tipu Sultan and Ranjit Singh.
Identifies successful conquests of British against weaker opposition. 
Annexation of Oudh under the Doctrine of Lapse.
Failures:
Power of local Nawabs.
Early successes of Tipu Sultan. 
Ranjit Singh.
Afghanistan campaign.

Q Explain why Britain was so successful in extending its control of the sub-continent between 1750 and 1850. [7] (J2011/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), the question focused on the reasons why the British were successful in extending their control of the sub-continent. For those candidates who had prepared well for the examination this caused few problems and many of their answers were accurate and relevant, scoring a good mark within Level 3. However, a large number of candi- dates produced generalised or descriptive answers of Britain’s conquest of India emphasising its strength. Some candidates wrote about the weaknesses of the Mughal Empire and then repeated much of their answers in part (c) which followed.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
The battles of Plassey and Buxar gave the British the vast riches of Bengal and favourable trading rights with the local nawabs. This provided massive new resources which Britain could use to consolidate its control. The British also introduced governor-generals into the provinces who administered them along British lines and provided yet more control. The British army, using its vast local resources and superior weapons and skills, was increasingly taking control of more land.

Q Did educational reforms have a more important effect on the Indians than the social, religious and economic ones introduced by the British during the years 1773 to 1856? Explain your answer. [14] (N2011/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) candidates were required to explain the effects of social, religious and economic reforms introduced by the British between 1773 and 1856, including educational ones. Many candidates knew a large number of facts about such reforms and as such accessed a Level 2 mark. Candidates who reached Levels 3 and 4 were also able to explain the reforms, and the effects they had on Indian society during this time.

Marking Scheme: Explains more than one factor, including educational reforms. Also pro- duces a judgement or evaluation.

Macauley introduced schools across the country to teach Western ideas using the English language. He believed that British ideas were far better than anything that came from India and that it would impose Western values and help the British to govern India more effectively. Although a common language would help to unite India, imposing a European culture on the Indians would alienate many of them. Indians had to send their children to co- educational schools, which was unpopular, since it appeared to impose the British system on the Indians without due regard to their religious and cultural feelings. Christian missionaries came to India to convert the local population as well as to set up schools. In these schools the missionaries taught Christianity and expected local religions to be given up, which was resented by Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs alike. The replacement of Persian and Sanskrit by English as the official language in the 1830s deeply upset both the Muslims and Hindus. A number of social reforms had been imposed by the British without consultation or care for local feeling, which caused much unrest. The banning of female infanticide and suttee, whilst seen by the British as inappropriate, did go against many traditional feelings Hindus especially held. They were also forced to abandon purdha, which had been an Indian custom for centuries. In 1852, the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ was introduced and this caused great unrest because any local kingdom not having a direct male heir was taken over by the British. The introduction of the railway in India revolutionised communication and transformed the country. For Britain, it meant that there was another means of extending their power and helped industry to profit by transporting raw materials to the ports. For the Indians, there were many advantages, especially in times of famine when food could be transported more easily. 

Urdu and Regional Languages

Q Why did Pakistan choose Urdu as its national language? [7] (N2001/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused few problems. The question focussed on the reasons why Pakistan chose Urdu as its national language. Most answers were to the point and relevant. Few answers went into great lengths about the history of the language, which was a pleasing improvement on previous years.

Q How successful has been the promotion of the following regional languages in Pakistan between 1947 and 1988:

(i) Punjabi; (ii) Pushto; (iii) Sindhi?

Explain your answer with reference to all three of the languages. [14] (J2002/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: Answers to part (c) on the promotion of regional languages were generally good. Candidates were more successful in producing balanced answers to this question than others. However, where there was a weakness of some candidates - it was a tendency to repeat the same information for each language e.g. a Literacy Board was formed or teaching it to MA level at university. More informed candidates were able to use more relevant knowledge and tried not to repeat themselves.

Q ‘The development of Pushto has been promoted more than any other Pakistani regional lan- guage between 1947 and 1988.’

Give reasons why you might agree and disagree with this statement. [14] (N2003/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) seemed to cause candidates some difficulty. Many candidates were able to describe or, at best, explain the efforts of government and other organisations to promote regional languages. However the question did require specific developments to reach level 3 in the mark scheme that many did achieve. However other candidates failed to address any other regional language from Pushto and others wrote about pre 1947 develop- ments or the growth of Urdu, neither of which were relevant to the question.

Q Why was Urdu chosen as the national language of Pakistan? [7] (J2004/P1/4b) 

Examiner Comments: In part (b) candidates had to explain why Urdu was chosen as the national language of Pakistan. Most candidates found little difficulty with this and scored highly.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons
It carries immense importance for all Pakistanis since it has been considered to be the lan- guage of all Muslims for 300 years. It was the language associated with the Pakistani Move- ment throughout its struggle with the British and the Hindus. After Independence it was felt that the language was the uniting force behind the nation and the government is committed to using at all levels in society.

Q How important was the development of regional languages to Pakistan between 1947 and 1988? Explain your answer. [14] (N2004/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) seemed to cause candidates little difficulty. Most candidates were able to describe or, at best, explain the efforts of government and other organisations to promote regional languages. However, the question did require specific developments to reach Level 3.

Marking Scheme: Explains the importance of several regional languages and may state the case of Urdu. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Punjabi is the regional language of the Punjab. The Government have ensured its development by giving support to those institutions who are using it. They have also taken steps to promote the Sindhi language by establishing the Sindhi Literary Board in 1948 which has printed many books and magazines in the language. The Baluchi language has also been promoted by its broadcasting on the radio. The establishment of the Quetta Television Station has also helped to promote it. Pushto literature was boosted after Independence since the poets had contributed a great deal to the freedom struggle. However the promotion of regional languages has not been as important as that of Urdu. It carries immense importance for all Pakistanis since it has been considered to be the language of all Muslims for 300 years. It was the language associated with the Pakistani Movement throughout its struggle with the British and the Hindus. After Independence it was felt that the language was the uniting force behind the nation and the government is committed to using at all levels in society.

Q Why did Pakistan choose Urdu as its national language? [7] (N2005/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), the reasons explained for the choice of Urdu as the national language were sometimes mixed. The question required candidates to explain why politicians took the decision to choose Urdu as the national language leading up to and after Partition. A description of early poets and the Hindi-Urdu controversy were hardly relevant on their own to this question. Answers should have focused on the association of Urdu with the Pakistani Movement, its uniting force and the fact that it was well know and spoken. These were the kind of reasons required in the answer.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
It carries immense importance for all Pakistanis since it has been considered to be the lan- guage of all Muslims for 300 years. It was the language associated with the Pakistani Move- ment throughout its struggle with the British and the Hindus. After Independence it was felt that the language was the uniting force behind the nation and the government is committed to using at all levels in society.

Q ‘The promotion of regional languages in Pakistan between 1947 and 1988 has been more suc- cessful than the promotion of Urdu.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer. [14] (J2006/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) many candidates produced excellent answers provided they explained the way in which languages were promoted since 1947. The question focused on the way in which regional languages and Urdu were promoted between 1947 and 1988.

Many candidates produced very good answers and were clearly well prepared with much relevant material. It was pleasing to note that some candidates attempted a judgement on the relative success of the regional languages in comparison with Urdu.

Marking Scheme: Explains both. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Punjabi is the local language of the Punjab. It was a popular language amongst the Sufi poets who used it for their romantic folk poetry. These poems contributed greatly to the popularity of Punjabi. After Independence, steps were taken for the promotion and development of the language in other parts of the province. The Government have ensured its development by giving support to those institutions who are using it. Sindhi was written in ‘Marwari’ and ‘Arz Nagari’ was of writing which was subsequently changed into Arabic. After Independence, steps were taken to promote the language e.g. the Sindhi Literary Board was set up in 1948 which has printed many books and magazines in the language. Pushto literature was boosted after Independence since the poets had contributed a great deal to the freedom struggle. The Baluchi language has also been promoted by its broadcasting on the radio. The establishment of the Quetta Television Station has also helped to promote it. Urdu carries immense importance for all Pakistanis since it has been considered to be the language of all Muslims for 300 years. It was the language associated with the Pakistani Movement throughout its struggle with the British and the Hindus. After Independence it was felt that the language was the uniting force behind the nation and the government is committed to using at all levels in society.

Q ‘Sindhi was promoted more than any other regional language between 1947 and 1988’. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2007/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) focused on the promotion of regional languages since 1947. Many answers were to the point and relevant, dealing with such languages as Sindhi, Punjabi, Pushto and Baluchi and explaining how these were promoted since 1947. There were few problems noticeable (apart from those candidates who continue to write about Urdu, believing it to be a regional language) and very many candidates were able to score a high level 4 mark.

Marking Scheme: Explains promotion of more than1 language (Sindhi to be included for maximum marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
After Independence, steps were taken to promote Sindhi e.g. the Sindhi Literary Board was set up in 1948 which has printed many books and magazines in the language. Punjabi is the local language of the Punjab. It was a popular language amongst the Sufi poets who used it for their romantic folk poetry. These poems contributed greatly to the popularity of Punjabi. After Independence, steps were taken for the promotion and development of the language in other parts of the province. The Government have ensured its development by giving support to those institutions who are using it. Pushto literature was boosted after Independence since the poets had contributed a great deal to the freedom struggle. The Baluchi language has also been promoted by its broadcasting on the radio. The establishment of the Quetta Television Station has also helped to promote it.

Q Explain why Urdu was chosen as the national language of Pakistan in 1947. [7] (J2008/P1/1b) 

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused few problems as most were able to explain why Urdu was chosen, and so scored in Level 3.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
It carries immense importance for all Pakistanis since it has been considered to be the lan- guage of all Muslims for 300 years. It was the language associated with the Pakistani Move- ment throughout its struggle with the British. After Independence it was felt that the language was the uniting force behind the nation and the government is committed to using at all levels in society.

Q Has the promotion of Urdu been more successful than that of any regional language in Pakistan between 1947 and 1988? Explain your answer. [14] (J2009/P1/1c)

Examiner Comments: In (c), the question focused on the ways in which Urdu and regional languages have been successfully promoted since 1947. The crucial point of the question was the way in which they were promoted rather than a description of each – most candidates were knowledgeable about all of these languages but fewer could successfully explain how they were promoted. However, having said that, most were able to address the question scoring well into Level 3 or 4 if they dealt with both regional languages and Urdu. For others, however, a narrative approach confined their answer to, at best, a Level 2 mark.

Marking Scheme: Explains promotion of more than one language, including Urdu. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Urdu carries immense importance for all Pakistanis since it has been considered to be the language of all Muslims for 300 years. It was the language associated with the Pakistani Movement throughout its struggle with the British and the Hindus. After Independence it was felt that the language was the uniting force behind the nation and the government is committed to using at all levels in society. Punjabi is the local language of the Punjab. It was a popular language amongst the Sufi poets who used it for their romantic folk poetry. These poems contributed greatly to the popularity of Punjabi. After Independence, steps were taken for the promotion and development of the language in other parts of the province. The Government have ensured its development by giving support to those institutions who are using it. Sindhi was written in ‘Marwari’ and ‘Arz Nagari’ was of writing which was subsequently changed into Arabic. After Independence, steps were taken to promote the language e.g. the Sindhi Literary Board was set up in 1948 which has printed many books and magazines in the language. Pushto literature was boosted after Independence since the poets had contributed a great deal to the freedom struggle. The Baluchi language has also been promoted by its broadcasting on the radio. The establishment of the Quetta Television Station has also helped to promote it.

Q Why have regional languages been promoted by the Pakistan government since 1947? [7] (N2009/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), candidates were required to explain why regional lan- guages were promoted by the Pakistan government since 1947. Many responses were good and candidates clearly knew their facts and scored highly. However some candidates strug- gled to recognise that this question was about why they were promoted rather than how as in previous years’ part (c) questions. As a result these candidates struggled to achieve more than one mark in this question. Again, candidates must ensure that they read each question carefully!

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.

It was felt that the literature and work undertaken by authors in such areas as Sindh should be kept alive and so the government set up bodies to promote it such as the Sindhi Literary Board in 1948. Many languages have played an important role in the history of the region, eg Pushto literature had an important role in creating opposition to British rule and the movement for independence. Balochi had little development before 1947 and its literature was in decline. However the government felt that it should be kept alive and not lost forever. Hence the language was promoted.

Q Source: Urdu became the national language after Independence in 1947. The Quaid was keen to promote Urdu as he saw it as an important unifying force in the new country. However, he also recognised the importance of regional languages and was keen to promote them. One of these was Balochi.

How has the Pakistan government promoted the development of Balochi since 1947? [4] (N2010/P1/2a)

Examiner Comments: Most candidates were able to score 3 or 4 marks in part (a) on the regional language of Balochi.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:
Radio Pakistan Karachi broadcasts in Balochi, Balochi Literary Association set up, weekly and monthly magazines published, Quetta TV station, development of Balochi literature, writers and poets e.g. Atta Shad, Ishq Shamin, Gul Khan Nazir and Azad Jamal Din.

Q ‘Punjabi has been promoted more than any other Pakistani regional language between 1947 and 1999.’ Give reasons why you might agree and disagree with this statement. [14] (J2011/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c), which was on how Pakistani regional languages have been successfully promoted since 1947, produced mixed responses. The crucial point of the ques- tion was the way in which they were promoted rather than a description of them. Most candi- dates were knowledgeable about all of these languages but fewer could successfully explain how they were promoted. In order to reach Level 4, candidates had to explain how regional languages including Punjabi (given in the question) had been promoted. The question needed to be answered by explaining the promotion rather than by describing where and how it is studied, heard and read. However, most candidates were able to address the question and achieved marks well into Level 3 or even Level 4 if they dealt with Punjabi and other regional languages, although there was much repetition of radio, TV and newspapers in their answers. Candidates should be aware that references to Urdu were irrelevant to this question and gained no credit.

Marking Scheme: Explains promotion of at least two languages including Punjabi. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Punjabi is the local language of the Punjab. It was a popular language amongst the Sufi poets who used it for their romantic folk poetry. These poems contributed greatly to the popularity of Punjabi. After Independence, steps were taken for the promotion and development of the language in other parts of the province. The Government has ensured its development by giving support to those institutions who are using it. Sindhi was written in ‘Marwari’ and ‘Arz Nagari’ was of writing which was subsequently changed into Arabic. After Independence, steps were taken to promote the language e.g. the Sindhi Literary Board was set up in 1948 which has printed many books and magazines in the language. Pushto literature was boosted after Independence since the poets had contributed a great deal to the freedom struggle. The Baluchi language has also been promoted by its broadcasting on the radio. The establishment of the Quetta Television Station has also helped to promote it.

Q Explain the choice of Urdu in 1947 as the national language of Pakistan. [7] (N2011/P1/1b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused few problems and was well answered. The question focused on the reasons why Urdu was chosen as the national language of Pakistan. Most candidates were able to explain a number of reasons with the result that many scored a Level 3 mark, often reaching the maximum allowable.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.

It carries immense importance for all Pakistanis since it has been considered to be the lan- guage of all Muslims for 300 years. It was the language associated with the Pakistani Move- ment throughout its struggle with the British and the Hindus. After Independence, it was felt that the language was the uniting force behind the nation and the government is committed to using it at all levels in society. 

The emergence of Pakistan 1906-1947

Pakistan Movement during the early 20th century

Q Explain the reasons for the establishment of the Muslim League in 1906. [7] (N2001/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) the question required candidates to explain the reasons for the establishment of the Muslim League in 1906. Those candidates who explained specific reasons scored highly whilst those who merely identified them in general terms were limited to a level 2 mark of 4. There was also a significant minority of candidates who wrote long descriptive answers, which went back to the mid-nineteenth century, most of which was irrelevant.

Q How did the Hindus oppose the Partition of Bengal between 1905 and 1911? [7] (N2002/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), most candidates were able to score well. The ways in which the Hindus opposed the Partition of Bengal were well known and most candidates scored highly.

Q Why was the Muslim League founded in 1906? [7] (J2003/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), most candidates were able to score well as the reasons for the formation of the Muslim League were well known. However, many candidates wrote far too much on this answer going back to the 1880s and the formation of the Congress Party. Also a description of the events during the Partition of Bengal was equally unnecessary.

Q ‘The Morley-Minto reforms were the most important of the attempts by either the Muslims, Hindus or the British government in seeking a solution to the problems in the sub-continent between 1906 and 1920.’
Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2003/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) a few problems arose over the reforms introduced between 1906 and 1920. Rather than merely describe every bit of detail on each of the reforms Exam- iners were looking for candidates to explain how important each was to gain the higher levels of marks.

Q Why was the partition of Bengal reversed in 1911? [7] (N2003/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), many candidates were unable to score well and wasted time and effort in their answers. The question required candidates to explain why the partition of Bengal was reversed in 1911. Answers should have focused on the attempts of the Hindus to influence the British by such methods as the Swadeshi Movement, attempts at assassination and terrorist activities. Details of why partition came about and the aftermath of this was irrelevant and gained little or no credit. It is essential that candidates read carefully the question set so that such mistakes do not occur.

Q Why was Bengal partitioned in 1905? [7] (J2004/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), most candidates were able to score well. The reasons for the partition of Bengal were well known. However, many candidates wrote irrelevantly on the reasons for partition to be reversed. Also a description of the events during the Partition of Bengal was equally unnecessary.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons
Of the 54 million people in Bengal 42 million were Hindus. It seemed sensible to divide up the province on religious grounds and also because it was becoming very large and producing significant administrative problems. By doing this it was felt that the province would be easier to administer especially at the time of a new British government in power.

Q Why did the Congress Party oppose the Morley-Minto Reforms of 1906? [7] (N2004/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), many candidates were unable to score well and wasted time and effort in their answers by describing the Morley Minto Reforms. The question required candidates to explain why these were opposed by the Congress Party.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons
The British intended that the Indians could voice their opinions in the Councils but the Hindus wanted more responsibility which the government were not prepared to give. This annoyed the Hindus who were looking towards self-rule. The British accepted the right of Muslims to have separate electorates which also annoyed the Hindus who saw it as a concession too far. Again self-rule was the goal for the whole country with the Hindus as the dominant force. The Hindus also resented the relative high position of Muslims in the Councils despite their much smaller numbers.

Q ‘The Lucknow Pact of 1916 was the only beacon of hope for Hindu-Muslim unity between 1914 and 1930.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2004/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) many candidates fared better and were able to clearly explain those events between 1914 and 1930 which had implications for Hindu-Muslim unity. This was a well-answered question by those candidates who were able to comment on the various reforms and events that reflected on Hindu-Muslim unity rather than by those who merely described everything that happened between these years. It was pleasing to note that there is an increasing number of candidates who are able to make a relevant comment on these issues rather than merely describe what happened.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors. Lucknow Pact to be included for maximum marks. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
The Lucknow Pact was an agreement on a scheme of constitutional reforms reached between Congress and the Muslim League. Both realised that co-operation was the only way to get the British government to agree to self-rule. For the first time Hindus acknowledged that Muslims had the right to a separate electorate and was therefore seen as a beacon of hope for the future. The Montague-Chelmsford Reforms continued this hope by establishing legislative councils in the provinces with a system of dyarchy. It was the first time that government had mentioned the possibility of self-rule in all internal matters. The Reforms disappointed Congress and Muslim League as both had hoped for more concessions. Relations between the two remained cordial since self-rule was still their aim and could only be achieved through cooperation. However the Nehru Report ended this hope. It was produced in response to demands for future constitutional reforms and the committee, which drew it up, had minimal Muslim representation. It reported on the future of the sub-Continent by looking to dominion status with no need for separate electorates. This totally alienated the Muslims and marked the end of any future co-operation between them and the Congress. However Jinnah made one final attempt to preserve the relationship in his 14 Points of 1929 in which he proposed three amendments to the report. These proposals were met with refusal and marked what he called the parting of the ways.

Q Why was the Muslim League founded in 1906? [7] (J2005/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), the reasons explained for the founding of the Muslim League were rather limited. Most candidates failed to score more than level 3/5 with only the very good scoring higher. The weaker candidates tended to write irrelevantly about the Partition of Bengal.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons
Muslim rights would not be advanced if they continued to rely on the Indian National Congress. It was seen as an organisation which would only advance Hindu views. The Congress was demanding that India should be treated as a cultural whole and Hindi should be declared the official language. By not organising a Muslim group they would continue to be disorganised and disunited. Even more worrying was the growth of extreme Hindu nationalist groups who demanded that Muslims be forcibly converted to Hinduism. Therefore, a number of prominent Muslim leaders founded the Muslim League.

Q Why was the Partition of Bengal reversed in 1911? [7] (N2005/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) the question required candidates to explain the reasons why the Partition of Bengal was reversed in 1911. These reasons were quite well known by many candidates who were able to access near maximum marks. However, it was important that candidates remained focused and avoided describing why Partition was introduced. What was required were answers that dealt with the way in which the Hindus opposed the British and so led to Partition.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.

The Hindus objection to Partition was so great that it caused the British to reconsider it. The Hindus opposed it by holding meetings and mass rallies which put pressure on the British government. They thought it was a deliberate attempt to ‘divide and rule’ on the part of the British. The Hindus were so angry that they attempted to assassinate Lord Minto and stated their boycott of British goods under the ‘Swadeshi Movement’. There was also an outbreak of terrorist activities.

Q Were the Morley-Minto reforms the most important attempt by either the Muslims, the Hindus or the British in seeking a solution to the problems in the sub-continent between 1906 and 1920?
Explain your answer. [14] (N2005/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) seemed to cause some candidates a few problems. Most candidates knew the facts about the political attempts to seek a solution to the problems in the sub-continent between 1906 and 1920 by focusing on the Morley-Minto and Montague- Chelmsford reforms and the Lucknow Pact. They often had no problem describing these. However, as before in part (c) questions, the mark limit for such descriptive answers was only six. In order to access the higher marks in Levels 3 and 4 candidates were required to explain and make comments on such attempts rather than merely describe the political reforms. Such questions are not easy ones to answer and hence only the better candidate were able to score highly on this question. However, it does highlight the need of Centres and their candidates to focus more clearly on explanation rather than description.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors (Morley-Minto to be explained for maximum marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
The Morley-Minto Reforms became law in 1909 as the Indian Councils Act. The importance of the Councils which were enlarged was to ensure that Indian legislators were given a chance to express their opinions. The British also accepted the right of Muslims to have a separate electorate. However there were other attempts to solve the problems in the sub- continent during these years. The Lucknow Pact of 1916 as an agreement between the Muslims and Hindus which placed a number of political demands to the British government in an attempt to show a united front and produce common aims. Little was done by the British government about the sub-continent during the First World War but shortly afterwards in 1919 came the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms. These Reforms disappointed the Muslims and Hindus as they had hoped for greater concessions. Central government reserved sweeping powers for itself with only minor concessions for the locals. The Reforms did hold out concessions to political parties provided that they accepted the right of the British to remain in control. The Rowlatt Act of the same year increased the resentment of the political parties by including the right of arrest without a warrant and detention without bail.

Q Explain why the Lucknow Pact of 1916 came about. [7] (J2006/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), the reasons explained for the Lucknow Pact coming about were rather limited. Most candidates failed to score more than Level 3/5, with only the very good scoring higher. Many candidates tended to write about the terms of the Lucknow Pact, which were not strictly required by the question.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.

The Muslims and Hindus wanted to work together on constitutional reform. The Muslim League and the Congress agreed to co-operate to persuade the British government to accept their demands. The LP was an agreement on a scheme of constitutional reforms reached between Congress and the ML. Both realised that co-operation was the only way to get the British government to agree to self-rule. For the first time Hindus acknowledged that Muslims had the right to a separate electorate and was therefore seen as a beacon of hope for the future. They believed that by holding the sessions of both the Congress and the Muslim League in one place, feelings of goodwill and friendship would be generated between the two communities.

Q ‘Bengal was partitioned in 1905 because of geographical factors.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer. [14] (J2006/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) there were a number of problems. The question focused on the reasons for the Partition of Bengal. For those candidates who had been adequately prepared for the examination this caused few problems for them and many answers from these candidates were focused, accurate and relevant. However there were many candidates who saw the words Partition of Bengal and proceeded to write all they knew about its origins, causes and events leading up to its reversal mainly in chronological order. As a result many answers were merely descriptive and only partially relevant, often gaining no more than half marks as a result. Equally, there were also many candidates who having explained a number of reasons for Partition (and many did this well) then proceeded to go further and dealt with the events/reasons for its reversal. This only served to waste valuable time in the examination and stored up problems for the final question.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two. Geographical factors to be explained for maximum marks. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Of the 54 million people in Bengal 42 million were Hindus. It seemed sensible to divide up the province on religious grounds and also because it was becoming very large and producing significant administrative problems. By doing this it was felt that the province would be easier to administer especially at the time of a new British government in power. The Muslims believed that partition would bring an end to Hindu oppression and that they would enjoy true recognition in a province in which they were in a majority. The Hindus believed that the partition would come about as part of the British ‘divide and rule’ policy which would weaken Hindu unity and its influence in the new East Bengal.

Q Why was the Simla Delegation of 1906 an important turning point for the Muslims of the sub- continent? [7] (N2006/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), candidates were required to explain why the Simla Delega- tion of 1906 was an important turning-point for Muslims. Some only described the demands of the Simla Delegation. However, those candidates who understood the question found little difficulty in gaining a good mark.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
The Muslim demands for separate representation, election by only Muslim voters and weigh- tage in all elected bodies were accepted by the British. This resulted in a sudden upturn in Muslim-British relations and helped to remove the previous bad feelings between the 2 sides. It also paved the way for demands for a separate homeland with the granting of a separate electorate. It also guaranteed Muslims an independent role in the political process and as a result led to the formation of the All-Indian Muslim League later in the year.

Q Why did the British decide to reverse the partition of Bengal in 1911? [7] (J2007/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), the question focused on the reasons for the reversal of the partition of Bengal. For those candidates who had been adequately prepared for the exami- nation, this caused few problems and many answers from such candidates were accurate and relevant. However, there were some who ignored the question (why) and proceeded simply to write all they knew about the origins of Partition, together with the causes and events leading up to its reversal - mainly in chronological order. As a result, many answers were at best only partially relevant, often failing to gain a level 3 mark.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
The Hindus’ objection to Partition was so great that it caused the British to reconsider it. Congress opposed it by holding meetings and there were mass rallies which put pressure on the British government. They thought it was a deliberate attempt to ‘divide and rule’ on the part of the British. The Hindus were so angry that they attempted to assassinate Lord Minto and started their boycott of British goods under the ‘Swadeshi Movement’. There was also an outbreak of terrorist activities. Further Lord Curzon, originator of the idea, was no longer viceroy so a change of policy was easier.

Q ‘The Morley-Minto reforms were more important than any other political developments between 1909 and 1919’. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2007/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) depended on candidates’ ability to explain their answers rather than adopt a narrative approach to their answer. The question focused on the attempts of political developments to solve the problems in the sub-continent between 1909 and 1919 and required candidates to explain the importance of these. This type of question does not require a narrative approach. Candidates must not fall into the trap of describing answers to questions that clearly signal the need for an explanation since they are only going to be able to achieve a level 2 mark when they should be capable of reaching marks within levels 3 or 4. It does highlight the need for Centres and their candidates to focus more clearly on explanation rather than description especially with regard to political reform.

Marking Scheme: The Morley-Minto Reforms became law in 1909 as the Indian Councils Act. The importance of the Councils which were enlarged was to ensure that Indian legislators were given a chance to express their opinions. The British also accepted the right of Muslims to have a separate electorate. However there were other attempts to solve the problems in the sub-continent during these years. The Lucknow Pact of 1916 was an agreement between the Muslims and Hindus which placed a number of political demands to the British government in an attempt to show a united front and produce common aims. Little was done by the British government about the sub-continent during the First World War but shortly afterwards in 1919 came the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms. These Reforms disappointed the Muslims and Hindus as they had hoped for greater concessions. Central government reserved sweep- ing powers for itself with only minor concessions for the locals. The Reforms did hold out concessions to political parties provided that they accepted the right of the British to remain in control. The Rowlatt Act of the same year increased the resentment of the political parties by including the right of arrest without a warrant and detention without bail.

Q Why did Congress oppose the Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909? [7] (N2008/P1/2b) 

Examiner Comments: In part (b), candidates were required to explain why Congress opposed the Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909. Many responses were good and candidates clearly knew their facts. However, some candidates struggled to explain the importance of separate electorates and self-rule to opposition. As a result, many struggled to reach a good Level 3 mark.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
The British intended that the Indians could voice their opinions in the Councils but Congress wanted more responsibility which the government were not prepared to give. This annoyed many who were looking towards self-rule. The British accepted the right of Muslims to have separate electorates which also annoyed some Hindus who saw it as a concession too far. Some Hindus also resented the relative high position of Muslims in the Councils despite their much smaller numbers.

Q Why was the Muslim League established in 1906? [7] (J2009/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In (b), the question required candidates to explain why the Muslim League was established in 1906. Again this was a well known topic and few candidates had many problems scoring a Level 3 mark. However for some lengthy answers that went back to the foundation of the Congress party were unnecessary and little or no credit for such detail was forthcoming in most cases.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
The belief among some that Muslim rights would not be advanced if they continued to rely on the Indian National Congress. They saw it as an organisation which would only advance Hindu views. Congress was demanding that India should be treated as a cultural whole and Hindi should be declared the official language. By not organising a Muslim group, they saw that they would continue to be disorganised and disunited. Even more worrying to some Muslims was the growth of tiny extreme Hindu nationalist groups demanding that Muslims be forcibly converted to Hinduism. Equally, they saw a way to increase their influence with the British and gain better terms for Muslims (because many British saw India as organised and divided on religious lines). Therefore, a number of prominent Muslims founded the League.

Q ‘The reasons for partitioning Bengal in 1905 were more important than those that caused its reversal in 1911.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer. [14] (J2009/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) was a well known topic. Many candidates who were well prepared found little difficulty in explaining the reasons why Bengal was partitioned in 1905 and then reunited in 1911. For those candidates who explained each part, a Level 4 mark was available. However, many were unable to consider both sides well and, as a result, were only able to score 9 or 10 marks.

Marking Scheme: Explains BOTH. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Partition
Supporters of Partition among the British thought it would be sensible to divide up the province for administrative convenience. Bengal was very large and producing significant administra- tive problems. By doing this, the British felt that the province would be easier to administer, especially at the time of a new British government in power. Many Muslims supported Partition because they believed that it would give them dominance in the new province. Of the 54 million people in pre-Partition Bengal, 42 million were Hindus, but a new separate East Bengal would have a  
Muslim majority.
Reversal
Congress argued that Partition was part of the British ‘divide and rule’ policy which would weaken India and Indian unity. Major protest (meetings and mass rallies) organised by Congress, supported by many Hindus, was so great that it caused the British to reconsider it. Many Hindus started a mass boycott of British goods under the ‘Swadeshi Movement’. A few extreme Hindus adopted terrorist behaviour and, among other attacks, attempted to assassinate Lord Minto.

Q Source: Strikes and demonstrations caused the British much worry but this increased when rioting and banks were attacked in Amritsar in 1919. The British military commander in the area was determined to restore order.

Describe the Amritsar Massacre. [4] (Specimen 2010/P1/2a)

Marking Scheme: Reward each correct statement with 1 mark. 2 marks can be awarded for a developed statement. Candidates may refer to:
General Dyer, banning of public meetings in the city, 20000 crowd gathered, Jallianwala Bagh park, narrow entrances etc., no warning, troops fired on crowd, the well, high casualties, further measures followed the meeting, response of Dyer.

Q Why was the Simla Delegation of 1906 an important turning point for the Muslims of the sub continent? [7] (Specimen 2010/P1/2b)

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
The Muslim demands for separate representation, election by only Muslim voters and weigh- tage in all elected bodies were accepted by the British. This resulted in a sudden upturn in Muslim-British relations and helped to remove the previous bad feelings between the two sides. Also paved the way for demands for a separate homeland with the granting of a separate electorate. Also guaranteed Muslims independent role in the political process and as a result led to the formation of the All-Indian Muslim League later in the year.

Q ‘The Muslim League was established in 1906 because the Hindus had their own political party.’ Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2010/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) on the reasons for the foundation of the Muslim League pro- duced mixed responses. This was a very specific question that demanded equally specific arguments and those candidates who wrote narrative accounts of the period of time up to 1914 found that they were unable to progress beyond Level 2. There were those candidates who produced unnecessarily lengthy descriptions that went back to the foundation of the Congress party and for many little or no credit for such detail was forthcoming beyond Level 2. Many candidates found difficulty in formulating their answers to answer the question, but there was a significant number who were able to relate the requirements of the Muslims to form their own political party in response to the Hindu reaction to the partition of Bengal and the Congress party’s view that saw them representing the interest of all Indians. For these candidates a Level 4 mark attracting 9 or 10 was common.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors including the Hindu party. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

The Congress was demanding that India should be treated as a cultural and political whole and Hindi should be declared the official language. It was seen as an organisation which would only advance Hindu views. Muslim rights would not be advanced if they continued to rely on the Indian National Congress. By not organising a Muslim group they would continue to be disorganised and disunited. They didn’t feel that had the same influence as Congress with the British. Also the Hindus were beginning to protest against the partition of Bengal and the Muslims saw this as a sign of the influence the Hindus had and they were worried about their own interests. Even more worrying was the growth of extreme Hindu nationalist groups who demanded that Muslims be forcibly converted to Hinduism. Therefore a number of prominent Muslim leaders founded the Muslim League.

Q Source: Bengal was the largest of the provinces of India. It was a huge area to govern as one unit and the British government decided that it should be partitioned in 1905. This had the effect of causing conflict between the Muslims and Hindus, especially as the Muslims welcomed partition. The Hindus decided to form the Swadeshi Movement.

What was the Swadeshi Movement? [4] (N2010/P1/3a)

Examiner Comments: Again, this was a popular question with a good level of knowledge shown by most candidates generally achieving 3 or 4 marks on the part (a) short answer question on the Swadeshi Movement.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:
A boycott of British goods by the Hindus during the time of the Partition of Bengal (1905–11), British cloth thrown onto bonfires, wearing of locally produced clothes, series of strikes by Indian workers especially in Calcutta.

Q Why was the Simla Deputation of 1906 an important event for the Muslims of the subcontinent? [7] (N2010/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), the question required candidates to explain why the Simla Deputation of 1906 was an important event for Muslims. This was a well known topic and few candidates had many problems scoring a Level 3 mark. However, for some candidates who strayed unnecessarily into details about the Partition of Bengal and too much detail on the foundation of the Muslim League, marks were harder to come by. Nevertheless answers were generally good on this question.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
The Muslim demands for separate representation, election by only Muslim voters and weigh- tage in all elected bodies were accepted by the British. This resulted in a sudden upturn in Muslim-British relations and helped to remove the previous bad feelings between the 2 sides. It also paved the way for demands for a separate homeland with the granting of a separate electorate. It also guaranteed Muslims an independent role in the political process and as a result led to the formation of the All-Indian Muslim League later in the year.

Q Source: Towards the end of the First World War the British decided that firm action was needed to keep a grip on India, especially with the threat of renewed violence. During the war the British had the Defence of India Act to help keep order. Once this Act had expired the Rowlatt Act was introduced.

Describe the Rowlatt Act. [4] (J2011/P1/3a)

Examiner Comments: The part (a) short answer question on the Rowlatt Act was well an- swered and many candidates gained 3 or 4 marks.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:
1919, people could be tried in private by 3 High Court Judges, no right of appeal, people could be ordered to live in a particular place, stopped from holding meetings or arrested without warrant and kept in prison without trial, fear of a communist style revolution, Indian protests.

Q ‘Partition or reversal?’ Were the reasons why Bengal was partitioned in 1905 more important than those regarding its reversal in 1911? Explain your answer. [14] (J2011/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) was a well known topic and the question on the reasons for the partition and reversal of Bengal was well answered. Many candidates found little difficulty in explaining the reasons why Bengal was partitioned in 1905 and then reversed in 1911. Candidates who were able to go into detail and explain each side achieved a mark in Level 4.

Marking Scheme: Explains BOTH. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Partition
Of the 54 million people in Bengal, 42 million were Hindus. It seemed sensible to divide up the province on religious grounds and also because it was becoming very large and producing significant administrative problems. By doing this it was felt that the province would be easier to administer especially at the time of a new British government in power. The Muslims believed that partition would bring an end to Hindu oppression and that they would enjoy true recognition in a province in which they were in a majority. The Hindus believed that the partition would come about as part of the British ‘divide and rule’ policy which would weaken Hindu unity and its influence in the new East Bengal.
Reversal
The Hindus’ objection to Partition was so great that it caused the British to reconsider it. The Hindus opposed it by holding meetings and mass rallies which put pressure on the British government. They thought it was a deliberate attempt to ‘divide and rule’ on the part of the British. The Hindus were so angry that they attempted to assassinate Lord Minto and started their boycott of British goods under the ‘Swadeshi Movement’. There was also an outbreak of terrorist activities.Part (c) was a well known topic and the question on the reasons for the partition and reversal of Bengal was well answered. Many candidates found little difficulty in explaining the reasons why Bengal was partitioned in 1905 and then reversed in 1911. Candidates who were able to go into detail and explain each side achieved a mark in Level 4.

Q ‘The Montague-Chelmsford reforms were more important than any other political developments between 1909 and 1919.’ Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [7] (N2011/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c), candidates who had revised and had adequately prepared for the examination this question did well. Answers from these candidates were focused, accurate and relevant and many scored a high Level 4 mark by ensuring that they explained and commented on the importance of each political development in turn, including the Montague–Chelmsford reforms. The candidates who merely described the political developments (often very accurately) could not achieve a mark beyond Level 2.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors including MC reforms. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

The Morley-Minto Reforms became law in 1909 as the Indian Councils Act. The importance of the Councils (which were enlarged) was to ensure that Indian legislators were given a chance to express their opinions. The British also accepted the right of Muslims to have a separate electorate. However, there were other attempts to solve the problems in the sub- continent during these years. The Lucknow Pact of 1916 was an agreement between the Muslims and Hindus which placed a number of political demands to the British government, in an attempt to show a united front and produce common aims. Little was done by the British government about the sub-continent during the First World War, but shortly afterwards in 1919 came the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms. These Reforms disappointed the Muslims and Hindus as they had hoped for greater concessions. Central government reserved sweeping powers for itself, with only minor concessions for the locals. The Reforms did hold out concessions to political parties, provided that they accepted the right of the British to remain in control. The Rowlatt Act of the same year increased the resentment of the political parties by including the right of arrest without a warrant and detention without bail. 

Khilafat Movement

Q Explain the reasons for the establishment of the Khilafat Movement. [7] (N2001/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), most candidates were able to score well. The reasons why the Khilafat Movement was established were well known and most candidates scored highly although there was a significant minority who ignored the question and wrote all they knew on the topic.

Q Why was the Khilafat Movement founded? [7] (J2002/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) the question required candidates to explain why the Khilafat Movement was founded. Again those candidates who explained why scored highly, whilst those who merely described all they knew about events before, during and after the War did not fare as well. There was also a significant minority of candidates who displayed evidence of reproducing material from textbooks which had been learnt off by heart. These candidates reproduced a body of knowledge about the background to the Movement and in the final two lines of their answers listed two or three reasons why it was founded. Candidates who do this will not score highly since they constantly fail to select relevant information which is focussed on the question.

Q Was the withdrawal of Gandhi’s support from the Khilafat Movement the most important reason for its failure? Explain your answer. [14] (N2002/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: However, in part (c) many candidates fared less well. The details of the Khilafat Movement were well known although there were a significant number of candidates who were unable to explain why it failed. It is one thing to describe the role of Gandhi or the migration to Afghanistan, but another to actually explain why these led to the failure of the Movement. Many others simply ignored the requirements of the question and wrote all they knew on the topic.

Q Why did the Khilafat Movement fail? [7] (N2003/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) the question required candidates to explain the reasons why the Khilafat Movement failed. This is a very well known topic and those candidates who explained specific reasons scored highly, whilst those who merely identified them in general terms were limited to a level 2 mark of four. It is one thing to describe the role of Gandhi or the migration to Afghanistan, but another to actually explain why these led to the failure of the Movement. Many others simply ignored the question and wrote all they knew on the topic, which again attracted little credit and wasted valuable time and effort.

Q Was the Chaura Chauri incident of 1922 the most important reason for the failure of the Khilafat Movement? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2004/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) posed problems for some candidates usually unnecessarily. The question focused on the reasons for the failure of the Khilafat Movement. For those candidates who had been adequately prepared for the examination this was not a problem for them and answers from these candidates were focused, accurate and relevant, gaining high marks especially where they were well explained. However there were many candidates who saw the words Khilafat Movement and proceeded to write all they knew about its origins, causes and events mainly in chronological order. It was only when they reached a number of reasons for its failure that they started to attract marks. However these answers were often descriptive, lacking explanation and as a result failed to achieve half marks. Candidates who adopt this approach often find that time for the rest of their answers becomes tight and unnecessary stress is caused for them.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors. Also produces a judgement or evaluation. Chauri Chaura was a village in the United Province where trouble started between the police and a mob. Gandhi, who was in jail at the time was so upset by this incident that he called off the non-cooperation movement. This infuriated the Muslims who saw this action as taking the pressure off the British Government and weakening the Movement. Its failure was also brought about when thousands of Muslims migrated to Afghanistan in a religious protest against the British government. The Afghan government refused to allow all the refugees to settle. Many of those who returned to India died on the journey back or found themselves homeless. Thus Muslim support for the Khilafat Movement fell away. Its failure was also brought about by the decision of the Muslim Mustafa Kamal Ataturk to form a nationalist government in Turkey but the end had been seen in the refusal of Lloyd George to accept the demands of the Movement.

Q Was the Khilafat Movement founded because the Muslims feared the break up of Turkey after the First World War? Explain your answer. [14] (J2005/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) there were a number of problems. The question focused on the reasons for the reasons for the foundation of the Khilafat Movement. For those candidates who had been adequately prepared for the examination this caused few problems for them and answers from these candidates were focused, accurate and relevant. However, there were many candidates who saw the words Khilafat Movement and proceeded to write all they knew about its origins, causes and events mainly in chronological order. As a result most answers were merely descriptive and only partially relevant, often gaining no more than half marks as a result.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors (Turkey to be included for maximum marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Muslims held the Caliphate of Turkey in high regard and were not prepared to see Turkey split up after the War and thus the Caliph abolished. They feared this would happen when the British Government promised that the status of the Caliph would be respected in order to get the Muslims to fight alongside the Allies during WW1. The Muslims expressed their views to the British government during the War who promised that no harm would be done to the Caliphate. However, this promise was not kept at the end of the war since the Turkish Empire was broken up. Also the institution of the Caliphate was to be demolished. After the War ended reports from Europe suggested that the British and French wanted to punish the Turks for their support of the Germans. The imprisonment of several Indian Muslims during the War also contributed to the anger felt. As a result the Khalifat Movement was founded.

Q Explain why the Khilafat Movement had failed by 1924. [7] (J2006/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) the question required candidates to explain why the Khi- lafat Movement had failed by 1924. Again many candidates who were well prepared found little difficulty in their answers. However there was a temptation for others to write about the Movement as a whole, or at best fail to explain why, for example, the Hijrat Movement led to failure of the Khilafat Movement. Merely describing the Hijrat Movement did not answer the question and only attracted a Level 2 mark.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Gandhi decided that the Swaraj Movement was becoming too violent following the Chaura Chari incident and so called off his support. In 1920 the Muslim migration (hijrat) to Afghanistan took place. The Muslim League opposed this as they wanted them to stay and fight for their cause. The migration was a failure. The Afghan government was hostile to the migrants who on their return found their homes and jobs occupied which dispirited the Muslims. Finally the new Turkish government under Kemal Ataturk abolished the institution of the Caliph in 1924 so ending the Movement.

Q Was the abolition of the institution of the caliphate in 1924 the main reason for the failure of the Khilafat Movement? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2006/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) focused on the reasons for the failure of the Khilafat Move- ment. A reason was given – the abolition of the caliphate in 1924 – and the question required candidates to explain why such reasons led to the Movement’s failure. Candidates were NOT required to describe the Movement’s progress from 1919. Many described the details of the Movement from beginning to end, missing completely the point of the question which specifically focused on the reasons for failure. On the other hand, some answers were focused, accurate and relevant.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors (abolition of caliphate to be included for maximum marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Gandhi decided that the Swaraj Movement was becoming too violent following the Chaura Chari incident and so called off his support. In 1920 the Muslim migration (hijrat) to Afghanistan took place. The Muslim League opposed this as they wanted them to stay and fight for their cause. The migration was a failure. The Afghan government was hostile to the migrants who on their return found their homes and jobs occupied, which dispirited the Muslims. Finally the new Turkish government under Kemal Ataturk abolished the institution of the Caliph in 1924 so ending the Movement as the Muslims no longer had a cause for which to fight.

Q ‘The Khilafat Movement failed by 1924 because of poor leadership.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2008/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) saw many fail to explain their answers sufficiently. This question focused on the reasons why the Khilafat Movement failed. For those who had adequately prepared for the examination, this question caused few problems. Answers from these candi- dates were focused, accurate and relevant - and many scored high Level 4. However, many merely described the Movement from beginning to end. Merely describing the Hijrat was NOT answering the question – only identifying/describing a reason met the requirements. In order to gain a Level 3 or 4 mark, a candidate needed to explain why the failure of the Hijrat helped to bring about the failure of the Khilafat Movement.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors, poor leadership to be explained for maximum marks. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Some of the leaders including Maulana Muhammad Ali were imprisoned in 1921 which made the organisation less effective. Also by joining with Hindus, the objectives of the Movement were made less clear since Hindus, and Ghandi especially, were seen as using it for their own ends and, it was thought, didn’t have the interests of Muslims at heart. Gandhi decided that the Swaraj Movement was becoming too violent following the Chaura Chari incident and so called off his support. In 1920 the Muslim migration (hijrat) to Afghanistan took place. The Muslim League opposed this as they wanted people to stay and fight for their cause. The migration was a failure. The Afghan government was hostile to the migrants who on their return found their homes and jobs occupied, which dispirited the Muslims. Finally, the new Turkish government under Kemal Ataturk abolished the institution of the Caliph in 1924, so ending the Movement.

Q Explain the reasons for the failure of the Khilafat Movement. [7] (J2009/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In (b), candidates had to explain why the Khilafat Movement failed. Generally, these responses were well explained and often with greater confidence than the question that often appears as part (c) one. As such most candidates were able to access a mark in Level 3. However, it is important recognise that the question requires an explanation of why, for example, the Chaura Chari incident caused its failure rather than a description of these events.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Gandhi decided that the Swaraj Movement was becoming too violent following the Chaura Chari incident and withdrew his support. In 1920, the Muslim migration (hijrat) to Afghanistan happened. The Muslim League opposed this, wanting Muslims to stay and fight for their cause. The migration was a failure. The Afghan government was hostile to the migrants, who on their return found their homes and jobs occupied which dispirited the Muslims. Finally, the new Turkish government (Kemal Ataturk) abolished the Caliphate, so ending the Movement.

Q Was the abolition of the institution of the caliphate in 1924 the main reason for the failure of the Khilafat Movement? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (Specimen 2010/P1/2c)

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors (abolition of caliphate to be included for maximum marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Gandhi decided that the Swaraj Movement was becoming too violent (following the Chaura Chari incident) and so called off his support. In 1920 the Muslim migration (hijrat) to Afghanistan took place. The Muslim League opposed this as they wanted Muslims to stay and fight for their cause. The migration was a failure. The Afghan government was hostile to the migrants who on their return found their homes and jobs occupied, which dispirited the Muslims. Finally the new Turkish government under Kemal Ataturk abolished the institution of the Caliph in 1924, so ending the Movement as Muslims no longer had a cause for which to fight.

Q Why was the Khilafat Movement founded? [7] (J2010/P1/2b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), the question focused on the reasons why the the Khilafat Movement was founded. For those candidates who had been well prepared for the examina- tion, this caused little or no problems and many answers from these candidates were accurate and relevant, scoring maximum marks. However, there was a significant minority of candidates who found some difficulty in being able to focus their answer on the question posed. As a result, many answers were narratives of the events of the Movement from the beginning of World War One up to 1924, some of which was relevant and marks were gained accordingly. However, such candidates must understand the nature of the question stated and answer it accordingly.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Muslims held the Caliphate of Turkey in high regard and were not prepared to see Turkey split up after the War and thus the Caliph abolished. They expressed their views to the British government during the War who promised that no harm would be done to the Caliphate. After the War ended reports from Europe suggested that the British and French wanted to punish the Turks for their support of the Germans. As a result the Khalifat Movement was founded. Muslims held the Caliphate of Turkey in high regard and were not prepared to see Turkey split up after the War and thus the Caliph abolished. They expressed their views to the British government during the War who promised that no harm would be done to the Caliphate. After the War ended reports from Europe suggested that the British and French wanted to punish the Turks for their support of the Germans. As a result the Khalifat Movement was founded.

Q Was the migration to Afghanistan the most important reason why the Khilafat Movement failed? Explain your answer. [14] (N2010/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) some candidates failed to explain their answers sufficiently. This question focused on the reasons why the Khilafat Movement failed, including the migration to Afghanistan. For those candidates who had revised and had adequately prepared for the examination this question caused few problems. Answers from these candidates were focused, accurate and relevant and many scored a high Level 4 mark. However, many candi- dates merely described the events of the Movement. Describing the migration to Afghanistan or any other factor that led to the failure of the Movement was NOT answering the question as set – only identifying/describing a reason. In order to gain a Level 3 or 4 mark the candidates needed to explain why, for example, the migration to Afghanistan helped to bring about the failure of the Khilafat Movement.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors including Afghanistan. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Thousands of Muslims migrated to Afghanistan in a religious protest against the British government. The Afghan government was hostile to the migrants and refused to allow all the refugees to settle. Many of those who returned to India died on the journey back or found themselves homeless and jobs occupied which dispirited the Muslims. Thus Muslim support for the Khilafat Movement fell away. However there were other reasons for its failure. Some of the leaders including Maulana Muhammad Ali were imprisoned in 1921 which made the organisation less effective. Also by joining with the Hindus the objectives of the Movement were made less clear since the Hindus and Gandhi especially, were using it for their own ends and didn’t have the interests of the Muslims at heart. Chauri Chaura was a village in the United Province where trouble started between the police and a mob. Gandhi decided that the Swaraj Movement was becoming too violent following the Chauri Chaura incident and so called off his support. Its failure was also brought about by the decision of the Muslim Mustafa Kamal Ataturk to form a nationalist government in Turkey but the end had been seen in the refusal of Lloyd George to accept the demands of the Movement.

Q Source: A number of events that happened during the years of the Khilafat Movement led to its failure. During the years when the Movement was at its strongest, western dress and hair styles became less popular and the idea grew that disregard of the law of Islam by the British made India a dar-ul-harb (enemy territory). Thus thousands of Muslims set off on their hijrat.

Describe the hijrat. [4] (N2011/P1/3a)

Examiner Comments: Again this was a popular question with a good level of knowledge shown by most candidates generally achieving 3 or 4 marks on the part (a) short answer question on the hijrat.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:

1920 to Afghanistan, reminiscent of journey of Holy Prophet from Makkah to Madina, told to leave a foreign run state and move to an Islamic one, refused entry to Afghanistan, returned to villages penniless, unable to buy back their homes and land sold, difficult to get jobs. 

Pakistan Movement 1927-1939

Q Which of the following was the most important in the development of the Pakistan Movement:

(i) Jinnah’s 14 Points 1929;
(ii) Government of India Act 1935;
(iii) Congress Rule 1937-1939?

Explain your answer with reference to all three of the above. [14] (N2001/P1/2c)

Examiner Comments: Answers to part (c) were generally far too descriptive. In this question candidates were required to explain how each of the three issues were important in the devel- opment of the Pakistan Movement, rather than describe each one. As a result the majority of candidates could only reach the top of level 2 (6 marks) because they merely described the work of each one. However, it was pleasing to note that there were many candidates who did attempt to answer the question as set and for these higher marks were achieved.

Q Why were three Round Table Conferences held between 1930 and 1932? [7] (N2001/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), candidates had to explain why there were 3 Round Ta- ble Conferences. Many candidates found some difficulty with this question and tended to describe the Conferences rather than try to explain the reasons for them. As a result those candidates who answered the question in this way were not as successful in gaining many marks compared to earlier part (b) questions.

Q Which of the following contributed the most to the Pakistan National Movement:

(i) Allama Iqbal’s Address of 1930;
(ii) Chaudhary Rahmat Ali’s Scheme of Pakistan;
(iii) Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s Lahore Resolution of 1940?

Explain your answer with reference to all three of the above. [14] (J2002/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) seemed to cause candidates the least amount of difficulty. Most candidates commented on how each person contributed to the Pakistan Movement and as a result there were some very high scoring answers, which was pleasing. This was in con- trast to a similar question set in November 2001 on Jinnah which produced many descriptive answers detailing his life and career.

Q Why was Congress Rule (1937-1939) hated? [7] (N2002/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) the question required candidates to explain the reasons why Congress Rule was hated. This was a well known topic and those candidates who explained specific reasons scored highly whilst those who merely identified them in general terms were limited to a level 2 mark of 4.

Q Why was Congress Rule of 1937-39 so hated by the Muslims? [7] (J2004/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) the question required candidates to explain the reasons why Congress Rule was so hated by the Muslims. This was a well known topic and most candidates scored well.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons
Congress Rule was hated due to the atrocities committed against the Muslims. They were abused and killed by Hindus. Hindi was enforced as the official language and organised attacks were made on Muslim worshippers in mosques. Bande Matram, a song in which degrading remarks were used against Muslims, was adopted as the national anthem and had to be sung at the beginning of each day. The Widdia Mander Scheme was imposed on Muslims. Under this scheme, students had to bow before Gandhi’s picture each day.

Q Why did Jinnah produce his 14 Points in 1929? [7] (J2005/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) the question required candidates to explain the reasons why Jinnah produced his 14 Points in 1929. These reasons were quite well known and many candidates were able to access level 3 marks. Refreshingly there were few candidates who listed all of his 14 Points or indeed the terms of the Nehru Report!

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons
The 14 Points set out the demands of any future negotiations with either Congress or the British Government. The demands were also to form the basis of the Muslims demands for a separate homeland. It also convinced them that the Hindus and Muslims were two separate nations.

Q How successful were the three Round Table Conferences of 1930-1932? Explain your answer. [14] (J2005/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) seemed to cause some candidates a few problems. Most candidates knew the facts about the three Round Table Conferences and had no problem describing these. However, the mark limit for such descriptive answers was only six. In order to access the higher marks in levels 3 and 4 candidates were required to explain how successful these conferences were. Rote learned comments such as ‘it failed because of Gandhi’s stubborn attitude’ were unable to score any marks in these levels without further elaboration on why. Hence only the better candidate were able to score highly on this question and once again highlights the need of Centres and their candidates to focus more clearly on explanation rather than description.

Marking Scheme: Explains successes and failures. Also produces a judgement or evaluation. 

Failures:
1st:

  • Congress boycotted it
  • Deadlock on federal system
  • Minorities sub-committtee could not reach a conclusion 
2nd:
  • Gandhi stubborn and disagreed with most things
  • Minorities issue unresolved
  • 3rd Congress absent again
  • Gulf too great between two
Successes:
1st:
  • Federal system for India approved
  • Sind to be given a separate identity and a government
2nd: 
  • Congress attended
  • Minorities entered into an agreement on their demands

Q Was the introduction of Jinnah’s 14 Points in 1929 the most important factor in the development of the Pakistan Movement between 1928 and 1935? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2006/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) seemed to cause some candidates a few problems. The question asked candidates to explain the importance of a number of factors, including how the 14 Points helped the development of the Pakistan Movement between 1928 and 1935. Candidates were able to refer to such factors as the Nehru Report, the 14 Points, the Round Table Conferences and the Government of India Act amongst others. These factors were quite well known and many candidates were able to access Level 2 marks without any explanation. However the mark limit for such descriptive answers was only six. In order to access the higher marks in Levels 3 and 4, candidates were required to explain how each of the factors contributed to the development of the Pakistan Movement rather than merely describing what the Nehru report detailed. Refreshingly there were fewer candidates than in the past who listed all of Jinnah’s 14 Points or indeed the terms of the Government of India Act! Throwaway or rote-learned comments such as ‘it failed because of Gandhi’s stubborn attitude’ in relation to the Round Table Conferences were unable to score any marks in these levels without further elaboration on how they related to the question. Hence only the better candidates were able to score highly on this question and once again this highlights the need of Centres and their candidates to focus more clearly on explanation rather than description.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors. Importance of Jinnah’s 14 Points to be explained for maximum marks. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
The Nehru Report of 1928 was produced in response to demands for future constitutional reforms and the committee, which drew it up, had minimal Muslim representation. It reported on the future of the sub- Continent by looking to dominion status with no need for separate electorates. This totally alienated the Muslims and marked the end of any future co-operation between them and the Congress. However Jinnah made one final attempt to preserve the relationship in his 14 Points of 1929 in which he proposed three amendments to the report. These proposals were met with refusal and marked what he called – the parting of the ways. The 14 Points set out the demands of any future negotiations with either Congress or the British Government. The demands were also to form the basis of the Muslims demands for a separate homeland. It also convinced them that the Hindus and Muslims were two separate nations which was to be further developed by Allama Iqbal in 1930. The 1st Round Table Conference proposed a federal system for India which was approved. Sind was to be given a separate identity and a govt. However Congress boycotted it and there was deadlock on the federal system. The minorities sub-cttee couldn’t reach a conclusion. In the 2nd RTC Congress attended an minorities entered into an agreement on their demands. However in the 3rd RTC Congress was absent again and the gulf proved too great between the two sides. The Government of India Act of 1935 introduced a federal system of government which was disappointing to the Muslim League who had expected more concessions from the British. The period of the Congress Rule and the associated atrocities ensured that the Muslim League became the focal point for all Muslims. The chief ministers of Punjab, Bengal and Assam all joined the Muslim League.

Q Why was the Government of India Act of 1935 so important to the future of the sub-continent? [7] (N2006/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) required candidates to explain reasons why the Government of India Act of 1935 was so important. Very few candidates tackled this question with confidence and at best only described the terms of the Act (for which only a Level 2 mark could be awarded). Although this topic has rarely been set in the past, Centres must recognise that all elements of the syllabus will be examined, not just the more popular ones.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Some provincial autonomy was granted which meant that every provincial government was allowed to devise and carry out their own programmes and be responsible to their own leg- islature. This was the first time that this had been allowed and was seen as an important step forward. Ministers in the provinces could have control over all departments except when governors chose to intervene in cases of public order or to veto a bill they disliked. This was a drawback since it meant that the real power lay with the governors. However it did provide additional rights for the local population to vote – some 5 times the previous numbers at 35 million in total. Provisions for a federal government were also established at the centre for the first time which meant that princely states could decide to participate politically in affairs which concerned the sub-continent. However key decisions relating to external relations and defence were retained by the British which was a drawback.

Q ‘The main reason why Congress rule (1937-1939) was so hated was because of the introduction of the Wardha Scheme.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer. [14] (N2006/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) on reasons for the hatred of Congress rule in the 1930s was generally well answered. However, some who knew the details of Congress rule only described what happened without offering any reason why it was so hated. Teachers must show their candidates how to be alert to exam’s requirements so that they do not offer description when it is explanation that is required - the difference is a Level 2 mark instead of one in Level 3 or Level 4.

Marking Scheme: Explains 2 or more factors (Wardha Scheme to be included for max marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Congress Rule was hated due to the atrocities committed against the Muslims. They were abused and killed by Hindus. Hindi was enforced as the official language and organised attacks were made on Muslim worshippers in mosques. Bande Matram, a song in which degrading remarks were used against Muslims, was adopted as the national anthem and had to be sung at the beginning of each day. The Wardha Scheme was imposed on Muslims. Under this scheme, students had to bow before Gandhi’s picture each day. Muslims saw this as an attempt to convert them to Hinduism.

Q Why did Muslims object to the rule of the Congress party between 1937 and 1939? [7] (J2007/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), the question required candidates to explain why many Muslims objected to Congress rule during 1937-39. Many who were well prepared found little difficulty. However, there was a tendency for some to describe various ways in which the Muslims were treated rather than explain why many Muslims objected.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Congress Rule was hated due to the atrocities committed against the Muslims. Some were abused and killed by Hindus. Hindi was enforced as the official language and some organised attacks were made on Muslim worshippers in mosques. Bande Matram, a song in which degrading remarks were used against Muslims, was adopted as the national anthem and had to be sung at the beginning of each day. The Widdia Mander Scheme was imposed on Muslims. Under this scheme, all students had to bow before Gandhi’s picture each day.

Q ‘The Round Table Conference of 1930 achieved more than those of 1931 and 1932’. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2007/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) cause some candidates a problem. The question asked them to consider the relative importance of the three Round Table Conferences. The detail of these Conferences was well known and, refreshingly, there were many candidates who attempted to use their knowledge to explain reasons. As a result, they scored highly. Those answers without any explanation, however, were confined to level 2 marks. Low level, basic comments (such as ‘it failed because of Gandhi’s stubborn attitude’) on the Round Table Conferences were unable to score high marks because they offered no further elaboration showing how they related to the question. Essays must answer the question set if they are to score well.

Marking Scheme: Explains achievements of at least two RTCs. First RTC to be explained for maximum marks. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
The 1st RTC was successful in that the Federal system for India was approved and a representative govt should be introduced at provincial level. However Congress boycotted it and there was deadlock on the federal system and the Minorities sub- committee couldn’t reach a conclusion. However the 2nd RTC was successful in that the Congress attended but Gandhi was stubborn and disagreed with most things. Sind was to be given a separate identity and a govt. The Minorities issue remained unresolved. In the 3rd RTC Congress boycotted the talks while Jinnah was in voluntary exile, and it became apparent that the gulf was too great between two sides.

Q Why did Jinnah produce his 14 Points in 1929? [7] (N2007/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), the question required candidates to explain the reasons why Jinnah produced his 14 Points. Although most candidates were able to refer to the 14 Points (mercifully without listing all of them!) or the Nehru Report they struggled to explain convincingly why he produced them. Most candidates were unable to extract themselves from adopting a chronological approach starting with the Nehru Report rather than examining the 14 Points issues first. As a result few candidates were able to score highly in this part (b) question and at best only at the bottom of level 3.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
The 14 Points set out the demands of any future negotiations with either Congress or the British Government. The demands were also to form the basis of the Muslims demands for a separate homeland. It also convinced them that the Hindus and Muslims were two separate nations

Q Why was it necessary to hold three Round Table Conferences (1930-32)? [7] (J2008/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), the question required an explanation as to why it was necessary to hold three Conferences. Again, alas, some candidates failed to read the question. They were not asked to give a narrative of the Conferences, or even to describe the successes or failures of them. Neither did the question require candidates to go back to 1928 and the Nehru Report, nor before that to describe all that happened in these years. The question asked candidates to explain why three Round Table Conferences were required – and, indeed, why any were required at all. This was thus a very different question to ones asked in the past, and candidates must be warned about recycling old answers to old questions. Descriptive answers, however detailed, could at best only score in Level 2. However, there were a number of impressive and well answered scripts that scored highly within Level 3 by addressing the question actually set.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
It was realised that without the attendance of the Congress little progress on the future of the sub-Continent could be achieved. Lord Irwin met Gandhi and made progress so that another Round Table Conference could be held. In this Gandhi took a hard line, refusing to recognise the problem of the minorities and also claiming to represent the Congress alone – which he said spoke for the whole of India. The Conference broke up amidst threats that the British would impose a solution if agreement couldn’t be reached. It was then agreed that a third Conference would be held.

Q ‘The main reason why Congress rule (1937–39) was hated so much by many Muslims was because of the introduction of Bande Matram.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer. [14] (J2008/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) was set on a popular topic that has appeared in past exams. The well-prepared found little difficulty in explaining why Muslims objected to Congress rule and, as a result, they scored in Level 4. Some candidates, however, ignored the question and used their answers to describe various ways in which Muslims were treated. They could not score well.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors. (Bande Matram to be included for max marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Bande Matram, a song which Muslims felt to be degrading, was adopted as the national anthem and had to be sung at the beginning of each day. Hindi was enforced as the official language. Attacks were made on Muslim worshippers in mosques. Other atrocities took place. The Wardha Scheme was imposed on Muslims. Under this scheme, students had to bow before Gandhi’s picture each day. Muslims saw this as an attempt to convert them to Hinduism.

Q Why was there so much opposition to the Government of India Act of 1935? [7] (N2008/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), the question required candidates to explain reasons why there was opposition to the Government of India Act of 1935. Most candidates were unable to go beyond describing the terms of the Act which, of course, was not what was required. There were many irrelevant answers to this question. As a result, few were able to score highly (at best being placed at the bottom of Level 3).

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.

The Viceroy and Governor-General was head of the Federation and could exert special powers if he wanted to. Provincial governors also had special powers, having the right to dismiss ministers or the whole administration. Only 25% of India’s population could vote because of the property qualification for voting. Therefore few could vote. All sides in India opposed it from princes to Congress to The Muslim League, so there was little progress in gaining support.

Q Why was the Second Round Table Conference of 1931 unsuccessful? [7] (N2009/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) the question required candidates to explain the reasons why the Second Round Table Conference was unsuccessful. Many candidates did well here although far more of them were thrown by this question and either gave a narrative of this Conference or all three. Some started there description in 1928 with the Nehru Report As a result few candidates were able to score as highly in this part (b) question compared with 1 and 2.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
The Conference was unsuccessful because Gandhi refused to recognise the rights of the Muslims. He also refused to accept that the 14 Points of the Quaid-e-Azam should be included in future discussions. Gandhi was unreasonable about the rights of minorities and refused to accept their demands.

Q Do you agree that the celebration of the ‘Day of Deliverance’ in 1939 was justified? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2009/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) was a different type of question that required candidates to think carefully about their answer. The topic concerned with this question was well known and centred around the years of Congress Rule. However the question posed required candidates to consider both sides of the argument by answering whether to what extent they believed the Day of Deliverance was justified. The vast majority answered yes, which was to be expected, and supported their explanation with details of the atrocities experienced by Muslims during this time. As a result a top Level 3 mark was achieved by most of these candidates but very few achieved a Level 4 mark simply because they failed to consider issues on the other side of the argument. Whilst it is accepted that this subject is potentially an emotive one, nevertheless as historians we should be prepared to consider more than one side of an argument – whilst recognising that we might not support these – but accepting that there are alternative points of view that need investigating.

Marking Scheme: Explains BOTH. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Justified
The Day of Deliverance was celebrated because Congress Rule had been hated due to the atrocities committed against the Muslims. Bande Matram, a song in which degrading remarks were made against Muslims, was adopted as the national anthem and had to be sung at the beginning of each day. Some Muslims were abused and killed by Hindus. Hindi was enforced as the official language and organised attacks were made on Muslim worshippers in mosques. The Wardha Scheme was imposed on Muslims. Under this scheme, students had to bow before Gandhi’s picture each day. Muslims saw this as an attempt to convert them to Hinduism.
Not justified
The unity between the Muslim League and the Congress became irreconcilable and the chance of a future united India even less likely. Congress had resigned partly because Britain stated that India was at war with Germany. Therefore the ML were able to celebrate because Britain was probably more concerned with the war than the future of India.

Q Why was the Government of India Act of 1935 so important to the future of the sub-continent? [7] (Specimen 2010/P1/3b)

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Some provincial autonomy was granted which meant that every provincial government was allowed to devise and carry out their own programmes and be responsible to their own leg- islature. This was the first time that this had been allowed and was seen as an important step forward. Ministers in the provinces could have control over all departments except when governors chose to intervene in cases of public order or to veto a bill they disliked. This was a drawback since it meant that the real power lay with the governors. However it did provide additional rights for the local population to vote – some 5 times the previous numbers at 35 million in total. Provisions for a federal government were also established at the centre for the first time which meant that princely states could decide to participate politically in affairs which concerned the sub-continent. However key decisions relating to external relations and defence were retained by the British which was a drawback.

Q ‘The main reason why Congress rule (1937-39) was so hated was because of the introduction of the Wardha Scheme.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer. [14] (Specimen 2010/P1/3c)

Marking Scheme: Explains 2 or more factors (Wardha Scheme to be included for max marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Congress Rule was hated by many Muslims for various reasons. Some were abused and some were killed by some Hindus. Hindi was enforced everywhere as the official language and some attacks were made on Muslim worshippers in mosques. Bande Matram, adopted as an unofficial national anthem, had to be sung at the beginning of each day – Muslims felt that it made degrading remarks about them and their faith. The Wardha Scheme was imposed. Under this, students had to bow before Gandhi’s picture each day. Muslims saw this as offensive and some saw it as an attempt to convert them to Hinduism.

Q Source: The election results of 1937 created more problems than they solved. Congress was able to form a government in most of the provinces and began to exert control over the minorities. They introduced the Wardha Scheme amongst many other reforms.

What was the Wardha Scheme? [4] (J2010/P1/2a)

Examiner Comments: Most candidates scored 3 or 4 marks in part (a), again displaying a good knowledge of the topic.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:
A basic education scheme, introduced by Gandhi, made Hindi the sole language, removed religious education, made cotton spinning by hand a part of curriculum. Students expected to bow before picture of Gandhi.

Q Why did Jinnah produce his 14 Points in 1929? [7] (J2010/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) the question required candidates to explain why Jinnah produced his 14 Points in 1929. Although this was a well-known topic, a number of candidates had problems with it since they misunderstood the question and tended to write about the events that took place during 1928 and 1929 rather the reasons why Jinnah introduced his 14 Points and as a result fewer candidates scored within Level 3 than in previous questions.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.

The 14 Points set out the demands of any future negotiations with either Congress or the British Government. The demands were also to form the basis of the Muslims demands for a separate homeland. It also convinced them that the Hindus and Muslims were two separate nations.

Q ‘The First Round Table Conference of 1930 was the most successful one of all three.’ Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2010/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) was a well-known topic and the question on the successes and failures of the three Round Table Conferences was answered much better than in previous years. Many candidates who were well-prepared found little difficulty in explaining the successes of the first RTC and the failures of the second and were able to score a mark within Level 4. The successes and failures of the third RTC were more elusive for most candidates and the mark score of most candidates within Level 4 was in the region of 9 or 10. Nevertheless, there was still a sizeable minority of candidates who knew their facts on the topic and wrote a narrative account but were unable to comment succinctly on the level of success or failure of each Round Table Conference.

Marking Scheme: Explains BOTH. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Successes:
1st Federal system for India approved
Sind to be given a separate identity and a government 2nd Congress attended
Minorities entered into an agreement on their demands
Failures:
1st Congress boycotted it
Deadlock on federal system
Minorities sub-committee couldn’t reach a conclusion
2nd Gandhi took a hard line and refused to recognise the problems of the minorities. 
Muslims took a hard line against Congress to protect their position.
The new British National government were less keen to reach a compromise in India
3rd Congress absent again
Gulf too great between the two

Q Why did Muslims object to ‘Congress Rule’ between 1937 and 1939? [7] (N2010/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), the question required candidates to explain why the Muslims objected to the rule of the Congress Party between 1937 and 1939. Many candidates who were well prepared found little difficulty in their answers and were easily able to achieve a good Level 3 mark. However, there was a temptation for other candidates to describe the various ways in which the Muslims were treated rather than explain why Muslims objected to this.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.

Part (c) depended on candidates’ ability to explain their answers rather than adopt a narrative approach. The question focused on political developments to achieve the partition of the sub- continent during the Second World War (1939-1945) and required candidates to explain the success or otherwise of these. This type of question does not require a narrative approach but never fails to attract one. Centres should ensure that candidates fully understand that this type of question requires explanation – and in this year’s examination, success and failure. Candidates must try not to fall into the trap of writing narrative answers to questions that clearly signal the need for an explanation, since they are only going to achieve a Level 2 mark when they should be capable of reaching marks within Levels 3 or 4. Yet again this does highlight the need for Centres and their candidates to focus more clearly on how to write explanations rather than description in part (c) questions especially with regard to those that focus on political matters.

Q Why was the Government of India Act of 1935 so important to the future of the sub-continent? [7] (J2011/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: Part (b) required candidates to explain the reasons why the Government of India Act of 1935 was so important to the future of the sub-continent. Many candidates demonstrated sound knowledge of the Act and were able to confidently explain its importance rather than merely describing the terms of the Act, which was not what was required. In addition, many candidates were able to recognise the long-term implications of the Act, although not all were able to express this as a coherent answer to the question. As a result, the majority of candidates were able at least to reach the bottom of Level 3.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Some provincial autonomy was granted which meant that every provincial government was allowed to devise and carry out its own programmes and be responsible for its own legislature. This was the first time that this had been allowed and was seen as an important step forward. Ministers in the provinces could have control over all departments except when governors chose to intervene in cases of public order or to veto a bill they disliked. This was a drawback since it meant that the real power lay with the governors. However, it did provide additional rights for the local population to vote – some five times the previous numbers at 35 million in total. Provisions for a federal government were also established at the centre for the first time, which meant that princely states could decide to participate politically in affairs which concerned the sub-continent. However, key decisions relating to external relations and defence were retained by the British which was a drawback.Part (b) required candidates to explain the reasons why the Government of India Act of 1935 was so important to the future of the sub-continent. Many candidates demonstrated sound knowledge of the Act and were able to confidently explain its importance rather than merely describing the terms of the Act, which was not what was required. In addition, many candidates were able to recognise the long-term implications of the Act, although not all were able to express this as a coherent answer to the question. As a result, the majority of candidates were able at least to reach the bottom of Level 3.

Q Source: The Congress party decided at its Madras meeting in 1927 to boycott the Simon Commission which faced regular protests in India. Congress met with other parties to make proposals on the future constitution of India. This Conference was chaired by Motilal Nehru and produced the Nehru Report.

Describe the Nehru Report. [4] (J2011/P1/4a)

Examiner Comments: Candidates who answered it knew some facts about the Nehru Report and were able to score 2 or 3 marks for part (a), although few were able to score near or maximum marks. Candidates needed to concentrate on the question, which was very straight- forward, rather than discuss irrelevancies relating especially to Jinnah’s 14 Points and further tensions between Hindus and Muslims.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:
1928, constitutional guarantee of fundamental rights including freedom of conscience and liberty, central government responsible for peace and order, Dominion Status, India to become a federation with a 2 chamber parliament, protection of minorities, vote for all men and women.

Q Why were the three Round Table Conferences held between 1930 and 1932? [7] (N2011/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), the question required candidates to explain why there were three Round Table Conferences held between 1930 and 1932. This was a well known topic, although some candidates tended to write about the events that happened at the Conferences or the reasons why they failed rather than the reasons why they were held and, as a result, were only able to score a Level 2 mark.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.

There was a lack of unity amongst the Hindus and Muslims about the future of India; the British didn’t know what to do next and so decided upon holding conference to discuss it with all parties. The rejection of the Simon Commission’s findings by the Indians also persuaded the British to go ahead with the conference. The new Labour government, which had consistently supported Indian nationalism in the past, gave fresh hope for a solution. However, there were problems in the First Conference. It was realised that without the attendance of the Congress little progress on the future of the sub-Continent could be achieved. Lord Irwin met Gandhi and made progress so that another Round Table Conference could be held. In this, Gandhi took a hard line, refusing to recognise the problem of the minorities, and also claiming to represent the Congress alone, which he said spoke for the whole of India. The Conference broke up amidst threats that the British would impose a solution if agreement couldn’t be reached. It was then agreed that a third Conference would be held. 

Pakistan Movement 1940-1947

Q ‘During the Second World War (1939-1945), negotiations aimed at Independence achieved little.’ Give reasons why you might agree and disagree with this statement. [14] (N2001/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: In their responses to part (c) on the success of negotiations aimed at Independence during the Second World War there was a predictable type of answer from candidates. Examiners were looking for a balanced answer from candidates detailing suc- cesses and failures but most candidates merely described events during the War and as with the previous question they were limited to a mark within level 2.

Q Why did the Cripps Mission fail? [7] (J2002/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), there was a tendency for many candidates to write all they knew about the Cripps Mission, the reasons why it was sent to India and only at the end some reference to the reasons for its failure. This produced many answers which were unnecessarily long, containing irrelevant material. However other candidates focussed more clearly on the reasons for its failure and produced more succinct and shorter answers.

Q Which of the following contributed the most to the establishment of a separate homeland for Muslims:

(i) Gandhi-Jinnah Talks 1944; (ii) Simla Conference 1945;
(iii) Cabinet Mission Plan 1946?

Explain your answer with reference to all three of the above. [14] (N2002/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) seemed to cause candidates the most amount of difficulty. The vast majority of candidates described the facts regarding the three political developments rather than answer the actual question set. The question required candidates to explain how each contributed to the establishment of a separate homeland Pakistan Movement. This was a very different question to ‘write all you know about’. Thus those candidates who had learned their facts about this period and ignored the actual question tended to be limited to a mark of 6 at the top of level 2. However, there were those candidates who clearly attempted to answer the question as set and therefore accessed the higher levels of marks.

Q Was the Simla Conference of 1945 the most important factor during the 1940s leading to the partition of the sub-continent in 1947? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2003/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) seemed to cause candidates the most amount of difficulty. The vast majority of candidates described the political developments of the 1940s rather than address their importance. Thus those candidates who had learned their facts about this period and ignored the emphasis of the question on importance tended to be limited to a mark of 6 at the top of level 2. However there were those candidates who clearly attempted to answer the question as set and therefore accessed the higher levels of marks.

Q Why did the Cripps Mission of 1942 fail? [7] (N2004/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) the question required candidates to explain the reasons why the Cripps Mission failed. This is a very well known topic and those candidates who explained specific reasons scored highly, whilst those who merely described the events leading up to the Mission scored few marks. This is still a topic whereby many candidates have to describe all of this before they can focus on the reasons for failure. Unfortunately for these candidates they either write minimally about the reasons or waste time writing irrelevantly which then has implications for later questions.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
The Muslims rejected the plan because the British would not agree to Partition and the Congress Party wanted immediate and full control over the central government. The British were also negotiating from a weak position which the Congress Party exploited by demanding Britain leave the sub-continent immediately.

Q Why was the ‘Quit India’ Movement formed in 1942? [7] (J2005/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) candidates had to explain why the Quit India Movement was formed. For those weaker candidates that answered this question their answers tended to be a description of the events that led up to and followed the Cripps Mission of 1942. It was more by chance that these candidates scored any marks since their chronological description eventually reached the Quit India Movement. However, once again those candidates who were aware of the demands of the question were able to concisely focus their answers.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons
Both Muslims and Hindus were to some extent united in their opposition to the Cripps Mission’s proposals. The Muslims rejected them because the British would not agree to Partition and the Congress Party wanted immediate and full control over the central government. The British were also negotiating from a weak position which the Congress Party exploited by demanding Britain leave the sub-continent immediately. As a result Gandhi began the Movement.

Q Were the Gandhi-Jinnah talks the most important factor during the 1940s that led to the partition of the sub-continent in 1947? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2005/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: In their responses to part (c) however on the political events during the 1940s leading to Partition most candidates found great difficulty in scoring high marks. Most candidates were able to describe the events (some sketchily) of the 1940s but marks tended to be limited to Level 2 and a maximum of six. In order to access the higher marks in Levels 3 and 4, candidates were required to explain and make comments on such attempts rather than merely describe the political reforms. Again this question was not an easy one to answer and only the much better candidates were able to score highly. However once again it highlights the need of Centres and their candidates to focus more clearly on explanation rather than description.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors (to be included for maximum marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Gandhi and Jinnah held talks about a Muslim homeland but failed to reach agreement since Jinnah wanted all six provinces included in Pakistan whereas Gandhi only agreed to three. Nevertheless it was an important meeting since Gandhi had been forced to negotiate with the Muslim League on an equal footing for the first time. However they were not the only factor which was important in leading to eventual Partition at the Simla Conference, the Viceroy realised that the two parties were unable to reach agreement on anything. Although all parties agreed to the principle of the Executive Council, the sticking point was the method of selection. Following the Conference, Lord Wavell announced new elections. The results demonstrated that the Congress had control of the non-Muslim votes but that the League had equally gained control of the Muslim vote. It was clear that the League was an equal player to the Congress and that the demand for Partition could no longer be ignored by the Congress or the British Government. However it was following the announcement by Attlee that the British would leave the sub-continent by 1948 and the subsequent violence in the Punjab in March 1947 that convinced Nehru that Partition should take place quickly. This was formalised in the 3 June Plan.

Q Was the Cripps Mission in 1942 the most important factor during the 1940s that led to the partition of the sub-continent in 1947? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2008/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) depended on candidates’ ability to explain their answers rather than adopt a narrative approach. The question focused on political developments relating to partition and required candidates to explain the importance of these. This type of question does not require a narrative approach, but often seems to draw one. Candidates must not fall into the trap of narrative answers. This highlights the need for Centres and their candidates to focus more clearly on how to write explanations rather than description especially with regard to questions that are set on political matters. Candidates need to be shown that no (b) or (c) question on this paper asks for description, ever. The Viceroy and Governor-General was head of the Federation and could exert special powers if he wanted to. Provincial governors also had special powers, having the right to dismiss ministers or the whole administration. Only 25% of India’s population could vote because of the property qualification for voting. Therefore few could vote. All sides in India opposed it from princes to Congress to The Muslim League, so there was little progress in gaining support.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors. Cripps Mission to be explained for maximum marks. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Cripps went to India to gain support for the war effort in return for a number of promises includ- ing Dominion Status after the War had ended. The Muslim League rejected the plan because the British would not agree to Partition while Congress wanted immediate and full control over the central government. The British were also negotiating from a weak position which Congress exploited by demanding that Britain leave the sub-continent immediately. Gandhi and Jinnah held talks about a Muslim homeland but failed to reach agreement since Jinnah wanted six provinces included in Pakistan whereas Gandhi only agreed to three. Nevertheless, it was an important meeting since Gandhi had negotiated with the Muslim League on an equal footing for the first time. However, Cripps was not the only factor which was important in leading to eventual Partition. At the Simla Conference, the Viceroy realised that the two parties were unable to reach agreement on anything. Although all parties agreed to the principle of the Executive Council, the sticking point was the method of selection. Following the Conference, Lord Wavell announced new elections. The results demonstrated that Congress had control of the non-Muslim vote, but that the League had gained control of the Muslim vote. It was clear that the League was an equal player to Congress and that the demand for Partition could no longer be ignored by Congress or the British Government. However, it was following the announcement by Attlee that the British would leave the sub- continent by 1948, and the subsequent violence in the Punjab in March 1947, that convinced Nehru that Partition should take place. This was formalised in the 3 June Plan.

Q Why was the Cripps Mission of 1942 unsuccessful? [7] (J2009/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In (b), many candidates scored well on the reasons why the Cripps Mission was unsuccessful. However many candidates often wasted much time by describing the background and events leading up to the event rather than getting to the point of the question.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
The Muslim League rejected the Mission’s proposals because the British did not agree to Partition. Congress rejected the Plan because it did not go far enough, demanding instead immediate and full control over the central government. The British were also negotiating from a weak position which Congress exploited by demanding Britain leave the sub-continent immediately (‘Quit India’ movement).

Q Source: The Lahore Resolution was passed unanimously in 1940 at a conference held by the Muslim League. The Second World War was in progress and the British government sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India.

What was the Cripps Mission? [4] (Specimen 2010/P1/4a)

Marking Scheme: Reward each correct statement with 1 mark. 2 marks can be awarded for a developed statement. Candidates may refer to:
1942, British wanted support for the war effort, after war India would be given Dominion status, a Constituent Assembly to draw up new constitution, elections for the CA, reaction of Muslims (no Pakistan in plan), Hindus wanted immediate control, post-dated cheque on failing bank, led to ‘Quit India’ Resolution by Gandhi.

Q Source: During the summer of 1946 the Muslim League became increasingly worried that the British might simply withdraw from India and leave it to the Indians to sort out the problems that they had left behind. What followed was called the Direct Action Day.

What was the Direct Action Day? [4] (J2010/P1/3a)

Examiner Comments: The part (a) short answer question was not as well answered as the previous ones and usually attracted 2 or 3 marks. The Direct Action Day was not well known by most of those who answered this question.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:

Muslim League called for this to take place on 16th August 1946. An attempt to stop the British giving in to the Congress. Concerned they would be asked to form a government. Quaid asked for peaceful protest, but serious rioting, thousands of deaths.

Q How successful were negotiations aimed at Independence during the Second World War? Explain your answer. [14] (N2010/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) depended on candidates’ ability to explain their answers rather than adopt a narrative approach. The question focused on political developments to achieve the partition of the sub-continent during the Second World War (1939-1945) and required candidates to explain the success or otherwise of these. This type of question does not require a narrative approach but never fails to attract one. Centres should ensure that candidates fully understand that this type of question requires explanation – and in this year’s examination, success and failure. Candidates must try not to fall into the trap of writing narrative answers to questions that clearly signal the need for an explanation, since they are only going to achieve a Level 2 mark when they should be capable of reaching marks within Levels 3 or 4. Yet again this does highlight the need for Centres and their candidates to focus more clearly on how to write explanations rather than description in part (c) questions especially with regard to those that focus on political matters.

Marking Scheme: Explains both. Also produces a judgement or evaluation. 

Successes:

  • Muslim League’s own progress in Day of Deliverance/Lahore Resolution. 
  • Unity in rejecting Cripps Mission/demands for a separate homeland.
  • Muslim political gains in Jinnah-Gandhi talks.
  • Muslim stance at Simla Conference – necessity for new elections.

Failures:

  • Breakdown of relations between Congress and Muslim.
  • Rejection of Cripps Mission’s proposals.
  • Imprisonment following ‘Quit India’ protests.
  • Failure to reach agreement from Jinnah-Gandhi talks 1944.
  • Failure to reach agreement from Simla Conference 1945.
  • Failure to persuade Jinnah to agree to safeguards for Muslims in a united India.

Q Why did the Gandhi-Jinnah Talks fail in 1944? [7] (J2011/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) candidates had to explain why the Gandhi-Jinnah talks failed in 1944. This was mainly well answered; candidates who gave a number of explained reasons for the failure of the talks achieved a mark in Level 3. A number of candidates gained maximum marks by explaining more than three good reasons.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.

Gandhi only wanted to achieve independence first and foremost – partition discussions could follow later, whereas Jinnah wanted to settle the issue of partition first and before the British left. He knew that his bargaining position would be much weaker if he went along with Gandhi’s plan. Gandhi insisted that he spoke for all Indians and couldn’t accept the position of Muslims as being a separate nation. Hence independence for all Indians as a united nation was on his agenda. Jinnah was at odds with Gandhi and accused him of only speaking for Hindus, otherwise he would accept the idea of partition. He accused Gandhi of not accepting the two nation idea of partition. Gandhi also wanted the central government to have control of key areas such as defence and foreign policy, whereas Jinnah wanted these issues to be dealt with by the provinces. 

Personalities contributing to the Pakistan Movement

Q How important was Muhammad Ali Jinnah to the Pakistan Movement? Explain your answer. [14] (N2001/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) seemed to cause candidates the most amount of difficulty. The vast majority of candidates described the career and/or life of Jinnah with little regard for the actual question set. The question required candidates to explain Jinnah’s importance to the Pakistan Movement. The prefix to the question ‘How important’ also required candidates to examine either the elements of his work which were not important or the work of others who also had a contribution to make to the development of the Pakistan Movement. Thus the vast majority of candidates were limited to a mark of 6 at the top of level 2 simply because they were unable to address the terms of the question.

Q Why was Dr Allama Muhammad Iqbal an important influence on the struggle for a separate homeland for Pakistan? [7] (J2003/P1/3b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) the question required candidates to explain the reasons why Dr Allama Muhammad Iqbal was important to the Pakistan Movement. This was a well known topic and those candidates who explained specific reasons scored highly whilst those who merely identified them in general terms were limited to a level 2 mark of 4.

Q Why was Chaudhri Rehmat Ali an important influence on the struggle for a separate homeland for Pakistan? [7] (N2005/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) candidates had to explain why Chaudhri Rehmat Ali was an important influence on the struggle for a separate homeland for Pakistan. Most answers were at least satisfactory with some good answers.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Chaudhri Ali was the first person to use the name Pakistan for the separate homeland. P was for Punjab, A for Afghan, K for Kashmir etc. He also wanted a separate federation of Muslim states with independence. He formed a Pakistan National Movement to fight for the idea of Pakistan. In many respects he was ahead of his time. In 1940 the All-India Muslim League adopted his demand for a separate homeland for the Muslims. However his plan for 7 Muslim states to form a Commonwealth of Pak Nations was never adopted by the Muslim League.

Q ‘The 14 Points were Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s greatest achievement in the years 1929 to 1947.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer. [14] (J2009/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: In their responses to (c) on the achievements of Jinnah from 1929 to 1947, many candidates found great difficulty in scoring high marks since they were unable to deal with the requirements of the question set. The result was that there were many descriptive answers about his career rather than a consideration of his achievements. As a result, most candidates were only able to score a mark within Level 2 at best.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least TWO achievements, including the 14 Points. Also pro- duces a judgement or evaluation.
Jinnah’s 14 Points of 1929 set out the demands of future negotiations with Congress and/or the British Government. These demands were also to form the basis of Muslim League’s demand for a separate Muslim homeland. It argued that Hindus and Muslims were two separate nations and won much British approval for such a view. However, he also achieved much more. After the 1937 elections, Jinnah set out to reform the Muslim League at grass root level and, as a result, membership had grown significantly by mid-1938. Without this growth, the League would have struggled to be recognised by the British as a powerful player in Indian politics, and hence the fortunes of the Pakistan Movement would have possibly failed to bear fruit when it did. Jinnah used the Lahore Conference in 1940 to ensure that the Muslim League would only accept a solution to the sub-continent which ensured partition. This was called the Pakistan Resolution. He also opposed the proposals of the Cripps Mission that saw Dominion status for the sub-continent. In doing so he helped ensure the British realised the need to protect Muslim interests. Although the Gandhi-Jinnah Talks of 1944 broke up without agreement, Congress was left in no doubt that the League was an important organisation that spoke with authority on behalf of many sub-Continent Muslims. Due to continued pressure from the League and Jinnah, the 3 June Plan of 1947 announced that separate states would be set up – India and Pakistan.

Q Source: A number of conferences were held by the British in London during the early 1930s to discuss the position of Hindus and Muslims in India. One of those who attended such conferences was Chaudri Rehmat Ali.

Who was Chaudri Rehmat Ali? [4] (Specimen 2010/P1/3a)

Marking Scheme: Reward each correct statement with 1 mark. 2 marks can be awarded for a developed statement. Candidates may refer to:
Studied law at Cambridge University, believed in partition and a separate Muslim homeland, Jinnah didn’t yet believe in this, 1933 ‘Now or Never’ pamphlet put his views forward, devised future name of ‘Pakistan’.

Q Source: In 1929 the Congress Party called for complete independence from the British and began again its non-cooperation campaign. The Muslims disapproved of this campaign since they felt that Congress not only wanted independence but Hindu dominance over Muslims. At this time Dr Allama Iqbal came to prominence.

Who was Dr Allama Iqbal? [4] (N2010/P1/4a)

Examiner Comments: For those candidates who did answer it, they tended to score usually about 3 marks on the part (a) short answer question on Dr Allama Iqbal.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:

A philosopher, politician and poet who practised law in England. Knighted by the British in 1922 in recognition of his poetry. He believed in the need for Muslims to have a separate country and that Hindus and Muslims were 2 nations. In 1927 appointed General Secretary of Muslim League, and made his Allahabad speech in 1930. Buried outside Badshahi Mosque in Lahore.

Q Was the work of Allama Iqbal more important to the Pakistan Movement than that of Rehmat Ali? Explain your answer. [14] (J2011/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: The part (c) question on Allama Iqbal and Rehmat Ali tended to attract extensive narratives of the careers and work of the two individuals. Few candidates were able to explain their importance to the Pakistan Movement and fewer still were able to do this in a comparative manner. As a result, many candidates were only able to score a mark within Level 2. Such questions require an explanation to achieve a Level 3 or 4 mark and descriptions, especially regarding the careers of such individuals, will only attract a Level 2 mark.

Marking Scheme: Explains BOTH. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Allama Iqbal
He was the first important Muslim leader to advocate the partition of India and the creation of a separate Muslim state. As a result of his Allahabad address in 1930 when he put forward this view, separatism was seriously considered by many Muslims during the 1930s. He was also opposed to the British control of India – conquest of others was wrong and went against the Muslim faith. This strengthened his view that Muslims should have a separate homeland, independent of the British. He persuaded many Muslims that the Muslim League had to build an effective mass political party to challenge the domination of the Congress. This argument was adopted by Jinnah who went on to lead the Muslim League as a highly effective political party. His poetry awakened a sense of nationhood among Muslims and he urged them to be active in making progress. This progress needed to be along a distinctive Islamic path and not capitalist in nature. Again this vision was adopted by Muslims as a view of the future. Rehmat Ali

In 1933 he and some fellow students produced a pamphlet called ‘Now or Never’ in which he argued in favour of partition and gave the name Pakistan to this new Muslim state that would be formed. This became popular amongst most Muslims during the 1930s. His views were different from AI as he wanted a separate independent state whereas AI wanted just a separate state. However, Ali did attract his critics, especially as he criticised many Muslim leaders especially Jinnah and as such was viewed as less important a figure. He attacked him over abandoning Muslim communities in such places as Delhi as well as accepting a divided Bengal. He was also considered less important than Iqbal since Jinnah took up many of his ideas whereas he refused to meet Ali, but nevertheless his views were adopted eventually. 

Nationhood 1947-1999

Establishment of an independent nation 1947-1948

Q How successful was the government of Pakistan in solving the problems of Partition during 1947 and 1948? Explain your answer. [14] (J2002/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: In their responses to part (c) on the success or failure to solve the problems facing Pakistan after partition, there were a variety of answers from candidates. Ex- aminers were looking for a balanced answer from candidates detailing successes and failures. Many candidates merely described how the problems were solved without commenting on its success or otherwise. However where candidates did consider both sides of the question, they were able to score near maximum marks.

Q Why was the division of the armed forces and military assets a problem for Pakistan in 1947? [7] (N2003/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) candidates had to explain why the division of the armed forces and military assets were a problem. Most candidates found some difficulty with this question and struggled to achieve half marks. As a result, these candidates were not as successful in gaining many marks compared to earlier part (b) questions.

Q Was the refugee issue the most important problem facing the newly formed government of Pakistan in 1947? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2004/P1/3c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) seemed to cause candidates few problems. Most candidates were able to identify and, to a lesser extent, explain the problems facing the newly formed government of Pakistan in 1947. However, there were those candidates who saw Kashmir as an immediate problem and then proceeded to describe a chronological account of events prior to and since1947, thus losing track of the question that they should have been answering.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors. Also produces a judgement or evaluation. The refugees had been submitted to terrible atrocities and so thousands fled to Pakistan. They needed food and shelter and placed great strain on the new government. However there were other reasons. It was essential following the creation of Pakistan to have a new government immediately. However there was a shortage of properly qualified and experienced personnel which made the task of running a government department extremely difficult. Pakistan had been awarded 750 million rupees under the final settlement but only received 200 million at first. This put enormous strain on the new government since they were unable to use the money appropriately. It was also the case with the division of the armed forces and military assets. Much of the assets awarded were obsolete or out of order. Perhaps crucially the Canal Water Dispute was one of the most serious problems since India now controlled the water supply to Pakistan which brought tensions to a head between the two countries. The problem dragged on until 1959.

Q ‘The government of Pakistan was totally successful in solving the problems of Partition during 1947 and 1948.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer. [14] (J2005/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: In their responses to part (c) on the level of success in solving the problems of Partition in 1947 and 1948 most candidates found some difficulty in scoring highly. Most candidates were able to identify the problems facing the newly formed government of Pakistan in 1947 and also the ways in which these were overcome. However, the question was more than that, requiring candidates to explain how successfully these problems were solved. As a result many answers were limited to a mark within level 2. Only the better candidates were able to offer explanations on the successes and failures of the Pakistani government in these years.

Marking Scheme: Explains successes and failures
Successes:

  • Quaid-e-Azam Relief Fund created to help refugees. 
  • He appealed to the people to help the refugees.
  • He toured the provinces encouraging and motivating the people.
  • Declared himself ‘Protector-General’of religious minorities.
  • State Bank of Pakistan set up.
  • Karachi made capital of Pakistan.
  • Civil Services re-organised.
  • Joined United Nations and attempted to draw their attention to Kashmir problem.
Failures:
  • Kashmir and other Princely States issues not resolved.
  • Canal Water Dispute not resolved until 1959.
  • Millions made homeless or died as a result of Partition.

Q Why was Pakistan faced with a refugee problem in 1947? [7] (N2006/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), candidates had to explain why Pakistan faced a refugee problem. Most answers tended to contain good detail; few only described events such as the violence and massacres that took place at this time.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
During 1947, violence between Hindus and Muslims increased dramatically. Muslims fearful of being killed were forced to leave all their possessions and cross into Pakistan to seek shelter. The Boundary Award had made the problems worse between the two. Since Pakistan had become independent so Muslims were leaving India for their homeland, often with little or no possessions. It was argued that India deliberately made difficulties for the new Pakistani government by forcing Muslims across the border. Hindus and Sikhs, perhaps fearful of reprisals and a genuine desire to live in a Hindu nation, also contributed to the refugee problem by crossing from Pakistan to India.

Q ‘The Canal Water Dispute was the most important problem facing the newly established gov- ernment of Pakistan in 1947’. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2007/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: In their responses to part (c), many scored highly because they were able to explain why various problems caused such difficulties for the new government. Weaker answers, however, described the nature of the problems without showing how they affected the new country. Such answers could only score within level 2.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two. Canal Water Dispute to be explained for maximum marks. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
The Canal Water Dispute was one of the most serious problems since India now controlled the water supply to Pakistan – this brought tensions to a head between the two countries as Pakistan had to depend on India for its water supply. The problem dragged on until 1959. However there were other problems. Some Muslims in India had been submitted to terrible atrocities and so thousands fled to Pakistan. They needed food and shelter and placed great strain on the new government. It was essential following the creation of Pakistan to have a new government immediately. However there was a shortage of properly qualified and experienced personnel which made the task of running government departments extremely difficult. The new government was also short of money. Pakistan had been awarded 750 million rupees under the final settlement but only received 200 million at first. This put enormous strain on the new government. This was also the case with the division of the armed forces and military assets. Many of the assets awarded were obsolete or out of order.

Q ‘The formation of a government was the most important problem facing the newly established country of Pakistan in 1947.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2009/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: In their responses to part (c) on the problems facing the newly formed country of Pakistan, many candidates answered this very well and obviously had been at- tracted to Question 4 for this part even though they might have scored lowly on parts (a) and (b). As in Question 1 and 2 (c), to reach a Level 4 mark, candidates had to ensure that they included the problem relating to the formation of a government as well as other factors since this was included in the stem of the question. Most candidates were able to score well and many candidates were able to reach Level 4. However these answers highlight the clear need of Centres and their candidates to focus very clearly on explanation rather than description which will bring such rewards as seen in this part (c) question.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors including the formation of a government. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

It was essential following the creation of Pakistan to have a new government immediately. However there was a shortage of properly qualified and experienced personnel which made the task of running a government department extremely difficult. Pakistan had been awarded 750 million rupees under the final settlement but only received 200 million at first. This put enormous strain on the new government since they were unable to use the money appropri- ately. It was also the case with the division of the armed forces and military assets. Much of the assets awarded were obsolete or out of order. However there were other difficulties such as the problem of coping with the Muslim refugees from India. These refugees had been submitted to terrible atrocities and so thousands fled to Pakistan. They needed food and shelter and placed great strain on the new government. The Canal Water Dispute was one of the most serious problems since India now controlled the water supply to Pakistan which brought tensions to a head between the two countries as Pakistan had to depend on India for its water supply. The problem dragged on until 1959. The accession of the Princely States and especially Kashmir was a problem. The population of Kashmir was largely Muslim and wanted to join Pakistan whereas the ruler was Hindu and wanted to join India. The border was uncertain between India and Pakistan with respect to Kashmir and this inevitably caused problems.

Q Why was Pakistan faced with a refugee problem in 1947? [7] (Specimen 2010/P1/4b)

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Many Muslims wanted to live in a Muslim nation. During 1947, violence between Hindus, Mus- lims and Sikhs increased dramatically. Boundary Award made the problems worse between the two. Fearful of being killed, many Muslims who found themselves on the Indian side of the border felt they must leave all their possessions and cross into Pakistan to seek shelter, often with few or no possessions. It was argued that India deliberately made difficulties for the new Pakistani government by forcing Muslims across the border. Many Hindus and Sikhs, fearful of reprisals and motivated by the desire to live in a Hindu nation, also contributed to the refugee problem by crossing in the opposite direction.

Q Source: In 1947 the new nation of Pakistan faced huge difficulties which threatened its survival as an independent nation. Two serious disputes with India made life difficult for the new government of Pakistan. One of these was the Canal Water Dispute.

Q What was the Canal Water Dispute? [4] (J2010/P1/4a)

Examiner Comments: Those candidates who answered this question knew about the Canal Water Dispute and were able to score 3 or 4 marks for the part (a) short answer question.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:

Threatened agriculture in the Punjab, irrigation system depended on 6 rivers and 30 canals, some of which were in India. April 1948 India shut off waters flowing into Pakistan from Firozpur headworks, threatening millions of acres of agricultural land in Pakistan. Some waters reinstated in May 1948 but not permanently until 1959 and Indus Water Treaty. 

Pakistan in general 1947-1999

Q How successful have governments been in the Islamisation of Pakistan between 1947 and 1988? Explain your answer. [14] (J2002/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) on the Islamisation process of Pakistan there was the op- portunity for candidates to score highly if they could explain both the successes and failures of successive governments. There were some well-prepared candidates who were able to do this and who produced constructive answers that were relevant and concise. However, most candidates tended to produce a narrative of how governments attempted this process with great detail on Zia’s reforms, thus only reaching a level 2 score. Others attempted to show how these reforms were successful but this only resulted in many one-sided answers gaining no more than a level 3 mark. Few candidates were able to comment on why some reforms failed and so were unable to reach level 4.

Q Why did Pakistan face so many problems in the provision of education between 1947 and 1988? [7] (N2004/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) there were some good answers to the question on the provision of education since 1947. However, there were some candidates who irrelevantly described the provision of education rather than deal with the reasons why there have been problems.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons
Some 70% of the population are illiterate and many children simply do not go to school at all. An illiterate society means a poor economy and a poorly educated workforce.The major problem is the lack of government investment. This is because the military expenditure is excessively high for a country such as Pakistan and therefore there is little room for spending on education. Education is expensive in Pakistan. Children are expected to buy their own books and many children drop out of schools.

Q Why did educational reform become such an important issue between 1947 and 1988? [7] (N2007/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), candidates had to explain why Pakistan had faced prob- lems with educational reform from 1947 to 1988. For most candidates that answered this question their answers tended to contain some good detail but with little explanation, therefore few answers were able to reach level 3.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Some 70% of the population have been illiterate and many children simply did not go to school at all. An illiterate society means a poor economy and a poorly educated workforce. The major problem wais the lack of government investment. This is because the military expenditure was excessively high for a country such as Pakistan and therefore there is little room for spending on education. Education has been expensive in Pakistan. Children have been expected to buy their own books and many children dropped out of schools.

Q ‘The low rate of literacy was the most important social problem facing Pakistan between 1947 and 1988.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2008/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: In responses to part (c) on social problems (including literacy) facing Pakistan in 1947-88, many candidates found great difficulty in scoring high marks since they did not deal with the requirements of the question set. Many offered generalised answers which tried to consider the nature of literacy as a problem, but without much idea as to its meaning or context. Those who tried to deal with other social problems tended to regurgitate prepared answers to a previous question about problems facing Pakistan governments after independence. Many of these problems were not social in nature and, as such, were irrelevant. Social problems such as cultural differences, refugee and language problems, medical issues, population growth, age expectancy, infant mortality rates could all have been addressed. Sadly, very few offered answers that did this so most only scored in Level 2 at best.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors. Literacy rate to be explained for maximum marks. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Estimates suggest that the literacy rate in Pakistan is less than 30% and that female literacy is the worst amongst the population – about 14%. This mainly due to the lack of financial investment in education by successive governments who have viewed defence as being more important. Less than 3% of Pakistan’s budget has been spent on education. A major problem has faced primary education with serious under-funding compared to secondary and higher education. Little money remains for non-staff costs to spend on the primary sector. Drop- out rates particularly affect the primary sector with estimates suggesting that half the children joining primary school leave within 5 years and one third of girls drop out within a year. In the secondary sector many private schools have been formed which have been for the more wealthy parts of the population which further emphasises the gap between the rich and the poor. Candidates may also refer to other social problems such as: cultural differences, refugee problems, medical issues, language problems, population growth, age expectancy, infant mortality rates etc.

Q How successful have governments been in the Islamisation of Pakistan between 1947 and 1988? Explain your answer. [14] (N2009/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) candidates were required to explain and make comments on how successful was the Islamisation of Pakistan between 1947 and 1988. The temptation was that candidates merely described any knowledge they had on Islamisation and tended to concentrate on Zia-ul-Haq’s reforms without any explanation in the vast majority of cases. As a result a Level 2 mark was the only one that these candidates were able to achieve. It is important that Centres should seek ways to ensure that their candidates are equipped with the necessary skills to answer questions from all parts of the syllabus.

Marking Scheme: Explains both. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Successes:

  • Will make comments on the laws passed by Zia e.g. According to Zia, Pakistan needed a strong and stable government managed by people committed to Islamic values. Thus he introduced the laws. 
  • Will make comments on the Islamic provisions of the 1956 and 1973 Constitutions
Failures:
  • May refer to the 1962 Constitution which failed to establish an Islamic system and follow up the two previous ones. Martial Law was imposed in 1969. Zia’s ultimate failure.

Q Why was it so difficult to agree on a new Constitution in 1950? [7] (N2011/P1/4b) 

Examiner Comments: In part (b), candidates found difficulty with the question that required candidates to explain why it was so difficult to agree on a new Constitution in 1950.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.

East Pakistan disagreed with the draft proposals in 1950 because it felt that its people were under-represented, especially given its large population, and it wanted representation equal to each of West Pakistan’s provinces. It also objected to Urdu being the main language, given its use of Bengali. There was opposition from local and provincial politicians, as they had no input under the proposals of approving of the power of the head of state and central government. Religious groups also objected, as the new constitution wouldn’t put enough emphasis on Islam, and they argued that Pakistan should be governed on Islamic principles. 

Ayub Khan

Q Why was Martial Law declared in 1958? [7] (N2002/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), candidates had to explain why Martial Law was imposed in 1958. Most candidates found difficulty with this and tended to describe the events of the period rather than attempt to explain why it happened. As a result those candidates who answered the question in this way were not as successful in gaining many marks compared to earlier part (b) questions.

Q Which of the following was the most important contribution of Ayub Khan’s government during the ‘decade of development’ between 1958 and 1969:

(i) agricultural and other economic reforms; 
(ii) constitutional reforms;
(iii) foreign policy?

Explain your answer with reference to all three of the above. [14] (N2003/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: However, in their responses to part (c) on the importance of a number of reforms introduced by Ayub Khan, most candidates were on safer ground and many were able to confidently explain his contribution in these areas. The only criticism would come from those candidates who wrote irrelevantly about other reforms not identified in the question, but again these answers were in a minority.

Q Why was Martial Law declared in 1958? [7] (N2004/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) candidates had to explain why Martial Law was declared in 1958. Many candidates were able to describe the events that led to this declaration but few were able to fully explain why these resulted in Martial Law being declared. As a result, these candidates were not as successful in gaining many marks compared to earlier part (b) questions.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons
There were a number of Prime Ministers between 1956 and 1958 and it reached a stage when Ayub Khan achieved that status that he felt the army should take control until stability had been restored and questions answered. East Pakistan’s politicians wanted more say in the running of the central government which increased tension.

Q ‘Constitutional reforms were the most important of Ayub Khan’s domestic policies during the ‘decade of development’ between 1958 and 1969.” Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2005/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) on Ayub Khan’s domestic policies, knowledge was good but answers were often descriptive with many candidates also including foreign policy which was not asked for by the question. There were few candidates who were able to do this part well and most answers tended to be awarded level 2 for a straightforward narrative of reform during this time. However, it was pleasing to note that there were a number of candidates who did attempt to answer the question as set and as a result did score highly.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors (constitutional reforms to be included for maximum marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
In 1959 Basic Democracies were introduced which was a four tier structure of government allowing elections at various levels. The success of these councils which were set up was such that martial law was lifted. However, there were other factors which were important aspects of his domestic policies. Land was redistributed to farmers with medium sized farms and agriculture was revitalised to such an extent that crop outputs were at record levels. National growth rate rose more than 7% and the economy grew three times faster than any other South East Asian country. However, the new wealth was concentrated in the hands of a few and the general population did not benefit.

Q Why was Martial Law declared in 1958? [7] (N2006/P1/5b) 

Examiner Comments: In part (b), there were some good answers to the question asking about reasons for Ayub Khan declaring Martial Law.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
There were a number of Prime Ministers between 1956 and 1958 and it reached a stage when Ayub Khan achieved that status that he felt the army should take control until stability had been restored and questions answered. East Pakistan’s politicians wanted more say in the running of the central government which increased tension.

Q ‘AyubKhan’sagriculturalreformsweremoresuccessfulthananyotherofhisdomesticpolicies between 1958 and 1969’. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2007/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: In their responses to part (c) on Ayub Khan’s domestic policies answers were not substantive. Most candidates were able to describe his domestic reforms but marks tended to be limited to level 2 with a maximum of six. Again it has to be repeated that in order to access the higher marks in levels 3 and 4, candidates were required to explain and make comments on how successful such attempts were rather than merely describe them. Once again this question highlights the need of Centres and their candidates to focus more clearly on explanation rather than description.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors. Agricultural reforms to be explained for maximum marks. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Land was redistributed to farmers with medium sized farms and agriculture was revitalised to such an extent that crop outputs were at record levels. However there were other factors which were important aspects of his domestic policies. In 1962 an oil refinery was established in Karachi and a Mineral Development Corporation was set up for the exploration of mineral deposits. An Export Bonus Scheme was set up offering incentives to industrialists who in- creased exports. National growth rate rose more than 7% and the economy grew three times faster than any other South East Asian country. However the new wealth was concentrated in the hands of a few and the general population didn’t benefit. As a result of these policies economic growth rose sharply. In 1959 Basic Democracies were introduced which was a 4 tier structure of government allowing elections at various levels, The success of these councils which were set up was such that martial law was lifted.

Q Explain why Ayub Khan called the years 1958 to 1969 the ‘Decade of Progress’. [7] (J2008/P1/4b) 

Examiner Comments: In part (b), candidates had to explain why Ayub Khan called 1958-69 The ‘Decade of Progress’. Many dealt with this question appropriately and achieved Level 3.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Medical facilities were improved and attempts were made to control the population through a family planning programme. Economic growth was enabled through industrial developments funded by loans from the West. Agricultural reform meant an increase in agricultural produc- tion. He also tried to deflect increased criticism of his government by highlighting the reforms which in the main only benefited the wealthy.

Q Why was Martial Law declared in 1958? [7] (N2009/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) candidates had to explain why Martial Law was declared in 1958. For many candidates this was a difficult question and one that attracted description rather than explanation. Thus most answers tended to be Level 2 ones with few reaching Level 3.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
There were a number of Prime Ministers between 1956 and 1958 and it reached a stage when Ayub Khan achieved that status that he felt the army should take control until stability had been restored and questions answered. East Pakistan’s politicians wanted more say in the running of the central government which increased tension.

Q Why did General Ayub Khan declare Martial Law in 1958? [7] (Specimen 2010/P1/5b)

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
There were a number of Prime Ministers between 1956 and 1958 and it reached a stage when Ayub Khan achieved that status that he felt the army should take control until stability had been restored and questions answered. East Pakistan’s politicians wanted more say in the running of the central government which increased tension.

Q Why were the years 1958 to 1969 called the ‘Decade of Progress’? [7] (J2010/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), many candidates scored well on the reasons why the Decade of Progress was so named. There were some genuine attempts to answer the question as set and candidates detailed such reasons as the agricultural, industrial and social measures of Ayub Khan as reasons for the so- naming of this period of time. As a result, many candidates scored a mark within Level 3.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.

Medical facilities were improved and attempts were made to control the population through a family planning programme. Economic growth was enabled through industrial developments funded by loans from the West. Agricultural reform meant an increase in agricultural produc- tion. Ayub Khan also tried to deflect increased criticism of his government by highlighting the reforms which in the main only benefited the wealthy.

Q Source: Ayub Khan seized power because he had no faith in the democratic parliamentary process, but he wanted to show that he had the support of the people. He felt it important that all national decisions were made by the president but believed in controlled democracy. On the first anniversary of his takeover he introduced the Basic Democracies.

Q What were the Basic Democracies? [4] (N2011/P1/4a)

Examiner Comments: Those candidates who did answer the question tended to score 1 or 2 marks for the part (a) short answer question on the Basic Democracies.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:

1959, local committees named Basic Democrats, 80000, no political parties to take place in the elections held Dec 59 to Jan 60, newly elected BDs able to vote in referendum as to whether he should remain President, 95% voted yes. 

East Pakistan

Q Why did East Pakistan wish to break away from Pakistan? [7] (J2003/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) candidates had to explain why East Pakistan wanted to break away from Pakistan. Most candidates found little difficulty with this and scored highly. However, there were a number of candidates who tended to list the reasons rather than explain them, or they tended to write about the period in general terms.

Q ‘Economic factors were more important than political considerations in the creation of Bangladesh in 1971.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2004/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: In their responses to part (c) on the reasons for the creation of Bangladesh, many candidates predictably merely described all they knew rather than focusing on economic and political reasons and so were limited to a mark within Level 2 however, it was pleasing to note that there were many candidates who did attempt to answer the question as set, assessing the relative importance of each set of factors and for these higher marks were rightly achieved.

Marking Scheme: Explains both. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Economic:

  • Most of the wealth of Pakistan was concentrated in the west not only of individuals but also in terms of government expenditure. This caused great resentment in East Pakistan. 
  • A weaker industrial base and a climate ravaged by regular floods led to even more depression in this area which caused further discontent. 
  • Also the eastern province saw little return for the wealth created by the growing of jute in the area. Again all the benefits went to the west.
Political:
  • Political parties who emerged in both parts believed in regionalism rather than national sovereignty. 
  • The demands of the Six Points of the Awami League were rejected by Ayub Khan, and its leader Mujib-ur- Rehman was imprisoned. This caused further discontent and separation began to look inevitable.

Q ‘The Six Points made by Mujib-ur-Rahman and the Awami League was the most important factor in the creation of Bangladesh in 1971.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2006/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: In their responses to part (c) on the relative importance of the factors leading up the creation of Bangladesh, many candidates found some difficulty in scoring high marks. Weaker candidates described the Six Points and some related them to the creation of Bangladesh. Better candidates knew a number of factors, particularly relating to real or supposed discrimination and were able to prioritise the factors.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two. Six Points to be explained for maximum marks. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
The general election of 1970 saw the Awami League win a majority in East Pakistan. The League wanted a federal form of government, which would leave EP to control everything except defence and foreign policy. It wanted a separate currency and fiscal policy with its own taxation. It wanted to negotiate its own trade agreements with other countries and have its own armed forces. In effect they wanted separation from Pakistan which was becoming more evident due to the perceived differences between the two. Political parties who emerged in both parts believed in regionalism rather than national sovereignty. However the demands of the Six Points of the Awami League were rejected by Ayub Khan, and its leader Mujib- ur-Rehman was imprisoned. This caused further discontent and separation began to look inevitable. Most of the wealth of Pakistan was concentrated in the west not only of individuals but also in terms of government expenditure. This caused great resentment in East Pakistan. A weaker industrial base and a climate ravaged by regular floods led to even more depression in this area which caused further discontent. Also the eastern province saw little return for the wealth created by the growing of jute in the area. Again all the benefits went to the west.

Q ‘The geographical position of East Pakistan was the most important reason for the creation of Bangladesh in 1981’. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2007/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) on the reasons for the creation of Bangladesh, knowledge was generally good with some answers attempting to explain these. The incorrect date in the question, for which Examiners must apologise, did not appear to have any adverse effect on candidates. However many candidates found difficulty in explaining these reasons and provided a narrative answer, thus failing to score marks in levels 3 or 4.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two. Geography to be explained for maximum marks. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
East Pakistan was a long way from the western half and most of the wealth of Pakistan was concentrated in the west not only of individuals but also in terms of government expenditure. This caused great resentment in East Pakistan. A weaker industrial base and a climate ravaged by regular floods led to even more depression in this area which caused further discontent. Also the eastern province saw little return for the wealth created by the growing of jute in the area. Again all the benefits went to the west. The general election of 1970 saw the Awami League win a majority in East Pakistan. The League wanted a federal form of government, which would leave EP to control everything except defence and foreign policy. It wanted a separate currency and fiscal policy with its own taxation. It wanted to negotiate its own trade agreements with other countries and have its own armed forces. In effect they wanted separation from Pakistan which was becoming more evident due to the perceived differences between the two. Political parties who emerged in both parts believed in regionalism rather than national sovereignty. However the demands of the Six Points of the Awami League were rejected by Ayub Khan, and its leader Mujib-ur-Rehman was imprisoned. This caused further discontent and separation began to look inevitable.

Q Why did East Pakistan wish to become independent of West Pakistan? [7] (N2008/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), candidates had to explain why East Pakistan wished to become independent. Most answers tended to include at least some explanation so many were able to reach Level 3.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.

East Pakistan was resentful of the fact that it was under-represented in the Pakistani army and the Civil Service. Due to the distance from the West, it felt that it was under political repression and with an undemocratic government. Because it had a weaker industrial base than the West and suffered from floods, it resented that it received little attention from the rest of Pakistan.

Q Were economic factors more important than any other factor in the creation of Bangladesh in 1971? Explain your answer. [14] (J2009/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In (c), there were some good answers to the question asking the reasons for the creation of Bangladesh. However in doing this, candidates had to be mindful that they had to deal with economic factors as well as others in order to access Level 4 and also to explain why these factors resulted in the creation of Bangladesh rather than merely describe them. Few were able to do this part well and many answers tended to be awarded Level 2 for a straightforward narrative of the reasons.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least TWO factors, including economic ones. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
East Pakistan was a long way from West Pakistan and most of the wealth of Pakistan was concentrated in the West, not only of individuals but also in terms of government expenditure. This caused great resentment in East Pakistan. A weaker industrial base and a climate ravaged by regular floods led to even more depression in the East and this caused further discontent. Also, the eastern province saw little return for the wealth created by the growing of jute in the area. Again, most benefits went to the West. The general election of 1970 saw the Awami League win a majority in East Pakistan. The League wanted a federal form of government, which would leave East Pakistan in control of everything except defence and foreign policy. It wanted a separate currency and fiscal policy with its own taxation. It wanted to negotiate its own trade agreements with other countries and have its own armed forces. In effect, the Awami League wanted separation from Pakistan which was becoming more evident due to the perceived differences between the two halves of the country. Some politicians in both East and West Pakistan argued more and more for regionalism. The demands of the Six Points of the Awami League were, however, rejected by Ayub Khan, and the Awami leader Mujib-ur- Rahman was imprisoned. This caused further discontent and separation began to look more possible. The behaviour of the Pakistan army towards the population of East Pakistan from March 1971 turned most against rule from Islamabad. The intervention of Indian troops in East Pakistan in December resulted in a swift conclusion to the fight and Bangladesh became independent.

Q ‘Political factors were more important than any other factor in the creation of Bangladesh in 1971.’ Do you agree or disagree? Explain your answer. [14] (J2011/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) there were some good answers to the question about the reasons for the creation of Bangladesh in 1971. Many candidates had a good knowledge of these factors, especially those relating to social, economic and geographical reasons, but there was substantial confusion relating to the politics of the day. In order to achieve a mark in Level 4, candidates needed to discuss political factors as well as others and to explain why these factors resulted in the creation of Bangladesh rather than merely describe them. Few candidates were able to do this well and many answers tended to be awarded Level 2 for a straightforward narrative of the reasons or at best Level 3 for other factors. Many candidates found it difficult to discuss the political reasons and explain why they led to the creation of Bangladesh. There was little comment on the role of India in this.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two including political factors. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

The general election of 1970 saw the Awami League win a majority in East Pakistan. The League wanted a federal form of government, which would leave EP to control everything except defence and foreign policy. It wanted a separate currency and fiscal policy with its own taxation. It wanted to negotiate its own trade agreements with other countries and have its own armed forces. In effect, it wanted separation from Pakistan which was becoming more evident due to the perceived differences between the two. Political parties who emerged in both parts believed in regionalism rather than national sovereignty. However, the demands of the Six Points of the Awami League were rejected by Ayub Khan, and its leader Mujib- ur-Rehman was imprisoned. This caused further discontent and separation began to look inevitable. The intervention of Indian troops in East Pakistan resulted in a swift conclusion to the fight for independence. East Pakistan was a long way from the western half and most of the wealth of Pakistan was concentrated in the west not only of individuals but also in terms of government expenditure. This caused great resentment in East Pakistan. A weaker industrial base and a land ravaged by regular floods led to even more depression in this area which caused further discontent. Also the eastern province saw little return for the wealth created by the growing of jute in the area. Again all the benefits went to the west. 

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto

Q In which of the following did Zulfikar Ali Bhutto have most success:

(i) reform and control of the armed forces;
(ii) constitutional reform;
(iii) education and health reforms?

Explain your answer with reference to all three of the above. [14] (N2002/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: In their responses to part (c) on the success of a number of reforms introduced by Zulfikar Bhutto, many candidates predictably merely described these and other reforms and so were limited to a mark within level 2. However it was pleasing to note that there were many candidates who did attempt to answer the question as set, assessing the relative importance of each set of reforms and for these higher marks were rightly achieved.

Q Why did Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto fall from power in 1979? [7] (J2003/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) there were some good answers to the question asking for the reasons why Bhutto fell from power but many answers tended to describe his time in office without focussing on the question.

Q ‘Constitutional reforms were the most important of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s domestic policies be- tween 1971 and 1977.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2004/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c), on Bhutto’s domestic policies, knowledge was limited and answers were often vague with many candidates also including foreign policy which was not asked for in the question. There were few candidates who were able to do this part well and most answers tended to be awarded Level 2 for a straightforward narrative of reform during this time.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors. Also produces a judgement or evaluation. The new constitution drawn up in 1973 established a Senate which offered the opportunity for professionals, academics and specialists to work together. It also safeguarded the interests of minority provinces which now had an equal status in the Senate. However other aspects of his domestic policies were also important. Free primary education was introduced. New schools were to be built and all private sector schools were nationalised. The aim was to increase the literacy rate and raise academic standards. He also tried to improve the infant mortality and age expectancy rates by introducing Rural Health Centres and Basic Health Units.

Q ‘Social reforms were the most important of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s domestic policies between 1971 and 1977.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2006/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c), on Bhutto’s domestic policies, knowledge was good but answers were often descriptive, with many candidates also including foreign policy, which was not asked for by the question. There were few candidates who were able to do this part well and most answers tended to be awarded Level 2 for a straightforward narrative of reform during this time. Some candidates found difficulty with the term ‘social reforms’. However it was pleasing to note that there were a number of candidates who did attempt to answer the question as set and as a result did score highly.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two. Social reforms to be explained for maximum marks. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Amongst Bhutto’s social reforms, free primary education was introduced. New schools were to be built and all private sector schools were nationalised. The aim was to increase the literacy rate and raise academic standards. The changes in education led to overcrowding in existing schools whist new ones could be built. The reforms were not very successful since the building of new schools and the recruitment of new teachers could not be achieved quickly and was also very expensive. Many families resented the educational reforms since it meant a loss of earnings to them. He also tried to improve the infant mortality and age expectancy rates by introducing Rural Health Centres and Basic Health Units. Pharmaceutical companies were banned from charging for a particular medical brand name and so medicines became cheaper. However this did see the profits of chemists fall drastically and many international drug companies closed down their operations in Pakistan. However other aspects of his domestic policies were also important. The new constitution drawn up in 1973 established a Senate which offered the opportunity for professionals, academics and specialists to work together. It also safeguarded the interests of minority provinces which now had an equal status in the Senate. He produced the 1973 Constitution in an attempt to return to a form of parliamentary democracy and it was important since it is the basis upon which Pakistan has been governed to the end of the 20th Century apart from when it was suspended due to martial law. One of the main weaknesses of the new constitution was that the focal point of political power lay with the party leadership and Bhutto in particular. When things went wrong the blame was clearly laid at his feet.

Q Why was Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto arrested and subsequently executed in 1979? [7] (N2007/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) there was a preponderance of descriptive answers to the question asking for the reasons why Bhutto was arrested and executed. Few answers were able to explain a number of reasons why this happened.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
One of the main weaknesses of his government was that the focal point of political power lay with the party leadership and Bhutto in particular. When things went wrong the blame was clearly laid at his feet. The changes in education led to overcrowding in existing schools whist new ones could be built. The reforms were not very successful since the building of new schools and the recruitment of new teachers could not be achieved quickly and was also very expensive. Many families resented the educational reforms since it meant a loss of earnings to them. Bhutto was finally accused of conspiracy to murder a political opponent and was found guilty. He refused to plead for clemency to the President.

Q ‘Education reforms were the most important of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s domestic policies between 1971 and 1977.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2008/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: Answers to part (c) were not substantive. Most were able to describe some of Bhutto’s domestic reforms but, marks tended to be limited to Level 2 with a maximum of six. Again, it has to be repeated that in order to access the higher marks in Levels 3 and 4, candidates were required to explain and make comments on how important such attempts were, rather than merely describe them. Answers to this question highlight again the need of Centres and their candidates to focus much more clearly on explanation (not description).

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two. Education reforms to be explained for maximum marks. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Amongst Bhutto’s education reforms, free primary education was introduced. New schools were to be built and all private sector schools were nationalised. The aim was to increase the literacy rate and raise academic standards. The changes in education led to overcrowding in existing schools whist new ones could be built. The reforms were not very successful since the building of new schools and the recruitment of new teachers could not be achieved quickly and was also very expensive. Many families resented the educational reforms since it meant a loss of earnings to them. However other aspects of his domestic policies were also important. He also tried to improve the infant mortality and age expectancy rates by introducing Rural Health Centres and Basic Health Units. Pharmaceutical companies were banned from charging for a particular medical brand name and so medicines became cheaper. However this did see the profits of chemists fall drastically and many international drug companies closed down their operations in Pakistan. A new constitution drawn up in 1973 established a senate which offered the opportunity for professionals, academics and specialists to work together. It also safeguarded the interests of minority provinces which now had an equal status in the Senate. He produced the 1973 Constitution in an attempt to return to a form of parliamentary democracy and it was important since it is the basis upon which Pakistan has been governed to the end of the 20th Century (apart from when it was suspended due to martial law). One of the main weaknesses of the new constitution was that the focal point of political power lay with the party leadership, and Bhutto in particular. When things went wrong, the blame was clearly laid at his feet.

Q Why did Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto come to power in 1971? [7] (N2009/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) most candidates tended to concentrate on Bhutto taking advantage in the aftermath of the loss of East Pakistan, whilst for other candidates little was known of the reasons for him coming to power and scored poorly.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
The army had been defeated by India and was at a low ebb. Yayha Khan had been disgraced and Bhutto took the opportunity to seek power. Pakistan also lost East Pakistan which became Bangladesh and again Yayha Khan and the army were blamed – and Bhutto took advantage. His programme of reform was attractive and appealed to the electorate. As a result Bhutto’s party won an overall majority in the National Assembly. He was also able to establish power by taking control of the army and appointing his own leaders. The FSF (secret police) further established his power base.

Q Source: Since 1947 relations between India and Pakistan have been very poor. India resented partition and the creation of Pakistan. Pakistan feared India’s intentions towards the new state. Above all the question of Kashmir has dominated the relationship. Two wars were fought between 1965 and 1971 but there was one glimmer of hope – the Simla Agreement.

What was the Simla Agreement? [4] (N2010/P1/5a)

Examiner Comments: The short answer question on the Simla Agreement was not well an- swered, with generally only 1 or 2 marks being achieved.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:
An agreement signed in July 1972 between Bhutto and Indira Gandhi. India agreed to return prisoners of war to Pakistan in return for a promise from Pakistan that the Kashmir problem would be discussed with India and not with bodies such as the UN. It improved Pakistan’s international reputation and increased Bhutto’s popularity by bringing home POWs.

Q ‘Constitutional reforms were the most important of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s domestic policies be- tween 1971 and 1977.’ Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2011/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) there were some good answers to the question asking for the importance of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s domestic policies between 1971 and 1977. As with other questions, it is important that candidates attempt to explain the importance of these policies in order to achieve a Level 3 or 4 mark.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two including constitutional reforms. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

A new constitution drawn up in 1973 established a Senate which offered the opportunity for professionals, academics and specialists to work together. It also safeguarded the interests of minority provinces which now had an equal status in the Senate. He produced the 1973 Constitution in an attempt to return to a form of parliamentary democracy, and this is important since it is the basis upon which Pakistan has been governed to the end of the 20th Century, apart from when it was suspended due to martial law. One of the main weaknesses of the new constitution was that the focal point of political power lay with the party leadership and Bhutto in particular. When things went wrong, the blame was clearly laid at his feet. However, other aspects of his domestic policies were also important. He also tried to improve the infant mortality and age expectancy rates by introducing Rural Health Centres and Basic Health Units. Pharmaceutical companies were banned from charging for a particular medical brand name and so medicines became cheaper. However, this did see the profits of chemists fall drastically and many international drug companies closed down their operations in Pakistan. Amongst Bhutto’s education reforms, free primary education was introduced. New schools were to be built and all private sector schools were nationalised. The aim was to increase the literacy rate and raise academic standards. The changes in education led to overcrowding in existing schools until new ones could be built. The reforms were not very successful, since the building of new schools and the recruitment of new teachers could not be achieved quickly and it was also very expensive. Many families resented the educational reforms since it meant a loss of earnings to them. 

Zia-ul-Haq

Q In which of the following did Zia-ul-Haq have most success between 1977 and 1988:

(i) Islamization;
(ii) economic affairs;
(iii) political affairs?

Explain your answer with reference to all three of the above. [14] (J2003/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: In their responses to part (c) on the success of economic, political and Islamization reforms introduced by Zia, many candidates predictably merely described these and so were limited to a mark within level 2. A good example of this relates to the Islamization programme, which consisted of a list of measures introduced without any analysis of success. However, it was pleasing to note that there were many candidates who did attempt to answer the question as set, assessing the relative importance of each set of reforms and for these higher marks were rightly achieved.

Q ‘Islamic reforms were the most important of Zia-ul-Haq’s domestic policies between 1977 and 1988.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2005/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: However in part (c) on Zia-ul-Haq’s domestic policies, knowledge was good but answers were often only descriptive with some candidates also including foreign policy which was not asked for by the question. Very few candidates were able to answer this part well and most attempts tended to be awarded Level 2 for a straightforward narra- tive of reform during this time. Again it should be emphasised that the question looked for explanation and comment on his policies rather than a description of what he did. This was particularly evident in addressing his Islamic reforms which were almost totally descriptive with no comments whatsoever. Once again it highlights the need of Centres and their candidates to focus more clearly on explanation rather than description.

Marking Scheme: Explain at least two factors (Islamic laws to be explained for maximum marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Zia introduced Islamic laws in an attempt to produce a strong and stable government managed by people committed to Islamic values. He ignored the political process and therefore the Islamic laws were very strict in order to produce a strong government. With regard to economic affairs, efforts to increase investment were met with some success since many of the previous nationalisation programmes were reversed and the private sector was encouraged to re-invest. Efforts were also made to increase the efficiency of government-run industries. There was a need by Zia to establish a measure of legitimacy to his presidency by declaring legal all the military actions since 1977. The passing of the Eighth Amendment in 1985 gave the President the power to dismiss The Prime Minister of the time. As a result of this martial law was lifted but Zia remained President, unchallenged.

Q Why did Zia ul-Haq introduce his Islamic reforms between 1977 and 1988? [7] (J2006/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) there were some good answers to the question asking for the reasons why Zia-ul-Haq introduced his Islamic reforms. However, as to be expected with questions on these, many weaker candidates saw it as an opportunity to describe all they knew about the nature of these reforms.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Zia introduced the Islamic laws in an attempt to produce a strong and stable government managed by people committed to Islamic values. He ignored the political process because he felt that Pakistan was weaker as a result of these. He therefore made the Islamic laws very strict in order to produce a strong government by imposing a strict legal code. He also wanted to implement laws which punished people for showing disrespect towards the Holy Prophet and ensured that Islamic education was implemented in schools so as to raise Islamic awareness amongst students. He also wanted to distribute some wealth to the poor and needy by introducing Islamic taxes.

Q ‘Zia-ul-Haq’s foreign policy was more successful than his domestic reforms’. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2007/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c), there were few good answers to the question asking for an assessment of the relative success of Zia-ul-Haq’s foreign and domestic policies. There were few candidates who were able to do this part well. The tendency was for many just to describe all they knew about the nature of such policies so most answers could only be awarded level 2 for straightforward description of what happened. However, it was pleasing to note that there were a number of candidates who did attempt to answer the question as actually set on the exam paper - as a result, they did score highly. Answers to such questions need to be able to explain why and/or how each of the issues they describe was successful or a failure.

Marking Scheme: Explains both. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Foreign policy:

  • The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 led to the West working very closely with Pakistan and providing military and economic support in return for becoming a base for anti-Soviet activities. 
  • Zia’s standing in the West increased and he was able with their support to sell military assistance to other Muslim countries. 
  • By 1985 there were in excess of 50,000 Pakistanis working in the Middle East as a direct result of this policy.
Domestic policies:
  • Zia introduced Islamic laws in an attempt to produce a strong and stable government managed by people committed to Islamic values. 
  • He ignored the political process and therefore the Islamic laws were very strict in order to produce a strong government. 
  • With regard to economic affairs, efforts to increase investment were met with some success since many of the previous nationalisation programmes were reversed and the private sector was encouraged to re-invest. 
  • Efforts were also made to increase the efficiency of government-run industries. 
  • There was a need by Zia to establish a measure of legitimacy to his presidency by declaring legal all the military actions since 1977. 
  • The passing of the Eighth Amendment in 1985 gave the President the power to dismiss the Prime Minister of the time. 
  • As a result of this, martial law was lifted but Zia remained President, unchallenged.

Q Why did Zia ul-Haq introduce a series of Islamic laws between 1979 and 1988? [7] (J2008/P1/5b) 

Examiner Comments: In part (b), many focused as required by the question on the reasons why Zia-ul-Haq introduced a series of Islamic laws. Candidates often scored highly within Level 3, producing competent answers.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Zia introduced the Islamic laws in an attempt to produce a strong and stable government managed by people committed to Islamic values. He ignored the political process because he felt that Pakistan was weaker as a result of these. He therefore made the Islamic laws very strict in order to produce a strong government by imposing a strict legal code. He also wanted to implement laws which punished people for showing disrespect towards the Holy Prophet and ensured that Islamic education was implemented in schools so as to raise Islamic awareness amongst students. He also wanted to distribute some wealth to the poor and needy by introducing Islamic taxes.

Q Source: Zia ul-Haq was aware that Pakistan needed a well organised and stable government. One of his measures to provide a strong government was the introduction of the Hudood Ordinances.

What were the Hudood Ordinances? [4] (Specimen 2010/P1/5a)

Marking Scheme: Reward each correct statement with 1 mark. 2 marks can be awarded for a developed statement. Candidates may refer to:
1977, Zia’s Islamisation programme, different punishments for different crimes including Of- fences against Property Ordinance, Offences against Zina Ordinance, Offences against Qafq Ordinance and Prohibition Ordinance, Islamic punishments for gambling, drinking, theft and adultery, punishments included amputation, caning etc, also included laws affecting women.

Q ‘Islamic reforms were the most important of Zia-ul-Haq’s domestic policies between 1977 and 1988.’ Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (J2010/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: In their responses to part (c) on Zia-ul-Haq’s domestic policies, candidates’ answers were largely narrative in format and few were able to explain their importance especially related to Islamic reforms. As a result, most candidates were only able to score a mark within Level 2 at best. Centres must impress upon their candidates that in such questions an explanation is required to achieve a Level 3 or 4 mark, and descriptions will only attract a Level 2 mark.

Marking Scheme: Explains at least two factors including Islamic laws. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Zia introduced Islamic laws in an attempt to produce a strong and stable government managed by people committed to Islamic values. He ignored the political process and therefore the Islamic laws were very strict in order to produce a strong government. With regard to economic affairs, efforts to increase investment were met with some success since many of the previous nationalisation programmes were reversed and the private sector was encouraged to re-invest. Efforts were also made to increase the efficiency of government- run industries. There was a need by Zia to establish a measure of legitimacy to his presidency by declaring legal all the military actions since 1977. The passing of the Eighth Amendment in 1985 gave the President the power to dismiss the Prime Minister of the time. As a result of this, martial law was lifted but Zia remained President, unchallenged.

Q Why did Zia-ul-Haq introduce his package of Islamic laws between 1979 and 1988? [7] (J2011/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) many candidates wrote good answers on the reasons why Zia-ul-Haq introduced his package of Islamic laws, whilst others saw it as an opportunity to de- scribe all they knew about them, which was not the point of the question. His desire to counter the policies of his predecessor was well known but little else. Many saw his motive as being linked to somehow influencing international perceptions without being able to substantiate this claim. Nevertheless, many candidates produced competent answers and scored within Level 3.


Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Zia introduced the Islamic laws in an attempt to produce a strong and stable government managed by people committed to Islamic values. He ignored the political process because he felt that Pakistan was weaker as a result of these. He therefore made the Islamic laws very strict in order to produce a strong government by imposing a strict legal code. He also wanted to implement laws which punished people for showing disrespect towards the Holy Prophet and ensured that Islamic education was implemented in schools so as to raise Islamic awareness amongst students. He also wanted to distribute some wealth to the poor and needy by introducing Islamic taxes.

Pakistan in the last decade of the 20th century

Q Source: Towards the end of the 1980s Benazir Bhutto was forced to work in a coalition with the MQM (Mohajir Qaumi Movement), Muslims who had migrated from India to Pakistan. At this time violent protests increased all over Pakistan; one of these led to the Pucca Qila massacre.

What was the Pucca Qila massacre? [4] (J2010/P1/5a)

Examiner Comments: In the short answer question, most candidates scored well and there were 3 or 4 marks gained by most of those who answered it.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:
May 1990, in Hyderabad, 40 supporters of MQM killed by police. Women and children in- cluded. Such violence led to the President (Ghulam Ishaq Khan) dismissing her government in August 1990.

Q Why did Benazir Bhutto fall from office in 1990? [7] (N2010/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), most candidates attempted to answer the question on why Benazir Bhutto fell from office in 1990 but knowledge of this topic was weak. It is important that Centres and their candidates recognise that in future years, topics in the later part of the twentieth century will continue to be set and it is hoped that they both understand the need to ensure that these are dealt with as comprehensively as others set in earlier times. Good time management is a key factor here.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
She was criticised by many for the alleged corruption of her husband Asif Ali Zardari and PPP leaders were suspected of being involved; this tainted her own reputation. She came into confrontation with provincial governments especially as she had to work in a coalition with the MQM which was a party that represented Muslims who had migrated from India to Pakistan and settled in Sindh. This angered many PPP members in Sindh. Violent protests throughout Pakistan led to the MQM leaving the coalition and joining with the opposition which meant that her majority was gone. Further violence and deaths led to her dismissal because she and her government were blamed for the breakdown of law and order.

Q Source: In August 1990, after accusations of corruption and amid increasing violence, Benazir Bhutto was dismissed as Prime Minister. She had been Prime Minister for less than two years. Following her government’s dismissal, Nawaz Sharif was elected as Prime Minister.

What problems did Nawaz Sharif face as Prime Minister during the 1990s? [4] (J2011/P1/5a)

Examiner Comments: In the short answer questions most candidates knew some of the problems faced by Nawaz Sharif, although there were often generalised descriptions associated with allegations of corruption without substantiation. Many candidates were able to score at least 2 marks on this question.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:
Divided nation, supporters of Benazir Bhutto wanted him to fail, difficult to promote economic progress and religious ideas at same time, lost USA aid, accused of involvement in death of Asif Nawaz, army Commander-in-Chief, dismissed, lost aid and support form other nations in 2nd term of office following nuclear testing, failures in fighting in Kashmir – blamed Musharraf, whom he tried to sack. Overthrown.

Q Why did General Musharraf come to power in 1999? [7] (N2011/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), most candidates attempted to answer the question on why General Musharraf came to power in 1999 but knowledge of this topic was weak. It is important that Centres and their candidates recognise that in future examinations, topics in the later part of the twentieth century will be set and that they understand the need to ensure that these are dealt with as comprehensively as those set in earlier times.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.

Sharif was giving support for the Taliban in Afghanistan and this damaged relations with USA, as they refused to hand over Osama bin Laden, suspected of bombing the US embassy in Kenya. Pakistan also tested nuclear weapons, which angered a number of countries who then halted aid to Pakistan and brought Sharif much criticism. He also blamed Musharraf for the embarrassing retreat from the fighting in Kashmir. The army refused to accept this criticism. Sharif tried to sack Musharraf whilst he was visiting Sri Lanka and, as a result, the army decided to intervene in the government and overthrew Sharif. 

World affairs since 1947

Q Why has Pakistan supported the Palestinian cause? [7] (N2001/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) there were some good answers from a question, which was topical given the political situation at the time. Generally most candidates were able to score well on this part.

Q How successful was Pakistan’s relationship with the USSR between 1947 and 1988? [14] (N2001/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) on relations with the USSR there was the opportunity for candidates to score highly if they could explain both the successes and failures of their relation- ship. Well-prepared candidates were able to do this and produced well thought out answers that were relevant and concise. However, as in previous years, most candidates tended to produce a narrative of how the relationship between the two countries has developed since 1947. As a result some of the content of the answers was relevant but opportunities were lost to score highly since the response was not focused enough.

Q Why was Pakistan unsuccessful in the 1965 and 1971 wars against India? [7] (J2002/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) candidates found it difficult to score marks on the reasons for the failure of Pakistan to beat India in the wars of 1965 and 1971. The main reason for this was that few candidates knew much about these events in terms of outcome. Many candidates produced rambling accounts of the wars which tended to focus on the unhelpful attitudes of the Chinese, Russians and the USA. As a result only some of the information was relevant and so marks tended to be fewer for this part.

Q Why did Pakistan join the United Nations in 1947? [7] (N2002/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) there were some good answers to the question asking for the reasons why Pakistan joined the United Nations. Generally most candidates were able to score well on this part which was pleasing to Examiners.

Q How successful was Pakistan in its relationship with the USA between 1947 and 1988? Explain your answer. [14] (N2002/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c) on relations with the USA there was the opportunity for candidates to score highly if they could explain both the successes and failures of their re- lationship. Well-prepared candidates were able to do this and produced well thought out answers that were relevant and concise. However, as in previous years, most candidates tended to produce a chronological narrative of how the relationship between the two countries has developed since 1947. As a result some of the content of the answers was relevant, but opportunities were lost to score highly since the response was not focussed enough.

Q How successful has Pakistan been as a member of world organisations between 1947 and 1988? Explain your answer. [14] (J2003/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) there were some good answers to the question asking for the reasons why Pakistan’s relationship was so poor after 1947, but generally candidates wrote a narrative of events without much focus centred on Kashmir and the intransigence of the Indian government during these years.

Q Why was Pakistan’s relationship with India so poor between 1971 and 1988? [7] (N2003/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) there were some good answers to the question asking for the reasons why Pakistan’s relationship was so poor after 1947, but generally candidates wrote a narrative of events without much focus centred on Kashmir and the intransigence of the Indian government during these years.

Q How successful was Pakistan in its relationship with Great Britain and the Commonwealth between 1947 and 1988? Explain your answer. [14] (N2003/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c), on relations with Britain and the Commonwealth, there was the opportunity for candidates to score highly if they could explain both the successes and failures of their relationship. There were some very pleasing answers this year to this kind of question – this has not been so noticeable in previous years. Well-prepared candidates were able to explain both the successes and failures of the relationship and produced well thought out answers that were relevant and concise. However, as in previous years most candidates tended to produce a chronological narrative of how the relationship has developed since 1947. In such circumstances this often does not enable candidates to properly address the question. As a result, some of the content of the answers was relevant, but opportunities were lost to score highly since the responses were not focused enough. Having said that, there were genuine and pleasing attempts to answer the question as set.

Q Why did Pakistan leave SEATO in 1972? [7] (J2004/P1/5b) Examiner Comments: In part (b) there were few good answers to the question asking for the reasons why Pakistan left SEATO.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons
America saw it as only applying to Communist aggression and Pakistan realised that it would not apply to their protection against India. Further uncertainties were caused when the Pak- istan government delayed its ratification despite the Treaty being signed by its Foreign Minister. Therefore weaknesses were apparent. Pakistan tried to secure further aid as a result of its membership and a permanent military force to protect member states. Both of these were refused which further weakened Pakistan’s resolve. When the organisation failed to support Pakistan in its wars with India withdrawal seemed to edge closer. Pakistan firmly believed SEATO should have supported it and became disenchanted with it.

Q How successfully did India and Pakistan handle the Kashmir issue between 1947 and 1988? [14] (N2004/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: However, in their responses to part (c) on the degree of success that Pakistan and India had in dealing with the Kashmir issue, few candidates were able to answer the question with confidence. Most candidates chose to produce a chronological narrative of Kashmir since 1947 and indeed before this date with little attempt to comment upon the successful or unsuccessful nature of negotiations/events aimed at resolving the issue. As a result most candidates found difficulty in achieving half marks for this question.

Marking Scheme: Explains successes and failures. Also produces a judgement or evaluation. Successes:

  • A cease-fire was arranged in January 1948 leaving Kashmir divided between India and Pakistan. 
  • India promises to hold a plebiscite in Kashmir to determine its future.

Failures:

  1. War has broken out on at least 2 occasions between the 2 countries. 
  2. Plebiscite still not been held. 
  3. Continues to be a source of conflict between the two nations.

Q How successful was Pakistan in its relationship with Afghanistan between 1947 and 1988? [14] (N2004/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c), on relations with Afghanistan, there was the opportunity for candidates to score highly if they could explain both the successes and failures of their relationship. There were some very pleasing answers this year. Well-prepared candidates were able to explain both the successes and failures of the relationship and produced well thought out answers that were relevant and concise. However, as in previous years many candidates tended to produce a chronological narrative of how the relationship has developed since 1947. In such circumstances this often does not enable candidates to properly address the question. As a result, some of the content of the answers was relevant, but opportunities were lost to score highly since the responses were not focused.

Marking Scheme: Explains both. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Successes:

  1. Leaders of the 2 countries have visited each other which has helped to improve relationships between them. 
  2. Zahir Shah wanted to be friendly with Pakistan and during the 1965 War remained neutral despite pressure from India and Russia.
Failures:
  • Afghanistan has violated a trade agreement on several occasions. 
  • Diplomatic relations have been severed due to hostility between the two countries but later renewed. 
  • During the Afghan - Russian War, Afghanistan violated Pakistan airspace and bombed Pakistani areas.

Q Why was membership of the United Nations important to Pakistan between 1947 and 1988? [7] (J2005/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) there were some good answers to the question asking for the importance to Pakistan of joining the United Nations.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons

Pakistan felt that membership of the United Nations would help their conflict with India over Kashmir by drawing the international community’s attention to it. Also Pakistan took it upon itself to become a spokesman of many Asian States and movements especially Muslim countries. Other issues included the World Bank and the Canal Water Dispute.

Q Why has Pakistan supported the Palestinian cause? [7] (N2005/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) there were some good answers to the question asking for the importance to Pakistan to the Palestinian cause.

Marking Scheme: Explain reasons.
Pakistanis have identified themselves with the Palestinians as Fellow Muslims who should be supported in their Cause. The Objective of the OIC of which Pakistan is a member is to promote harmony and co-operation between Muslim nations. The incident of the Al-Aqsa Mosque was discussed at the first meeting of the OIC and support offered to the Palestinians. At the Second Conference in 1974 more specific support was forthcoming.

Q Why was India successful in the 1965 and 1971 wars against Pakistan? [7] (J2006/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b) candidates had to explain why India was successful in the wars against Pakistan in 1965 and 1971. For many candidates this question was misinter- preted, with their answers tending to be a description of the wars and why they took place rather than reasons for India’s success. As a result, few candidates managed to achieve Level 2 or 3. However, once again, those candidates who were aware of the demands of the question were able to focus their answers concisely.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons. In 1965 the Pakistan army had never expected a full scale war with India over Kashmir. Their plans to encourage an uprising in Indian occupied Kashmir did not work. Indian troops attacked and Lahore was caught unprepared. By 1971, the Indians had developed a much bigger army and used the civil war in East Pakistan to fight Pakistan. The speed and ease of the Indian victory confirmed the Indian army’s superiority.

Q How successfully did India and Pakistan handle the Kashmir issue between 1947 and 1988? [14] (N2006/P1/4c)

Examiner Comments: In their responses to part (c), however, most candidates found great difficulty in scoring high marks. Most candidates were able to describe events since 1947 but they did not explain and make comments on how successful such attempts were. Again it highlights the need of Centres and their candidates to focus very firmly on developing the skills of explanation.

Marking Scheme: Explains successes and failures. Also produces a judgement or evaluation. Successes:

  • A cease-fire was arranged in January 1948 leaving Kashmir divided between India and Pakistan. 
  • From 1949 an official cease-fire line was agreed between India and Pakistan and was to be patrolled by UN troops. 
  • Pakistan kept up pressure on India by appealing to the UN whenever Indian moves tried to integrate Indian-occupied Kashmir into India. 
  • In 1957 the UN reconfirmed that Kashmir was a disputed territory and that a final solution should be settled by a UN supervised plebiscite. 
  • India promised to hold a plebiscite in Kashmir to determine its future.

Failures:

  • War has broken out on at least 2 occasions between the 2 countries. 
  • Plebiscite still not been held. 
  • Continues to be a source of conflict between the two nations.

Q How successful was Pakistan’s relationship with the USSR between 1947 and 1988? [14] (N2006/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c), on the relationship between Pakistan and Russia, knowl- edge was generally good with some answers attempting to explain the successes and failures of this since 1947. However, others tried to make simplistic and/or passing comments on parts of the relationship being successful or unsuccessful. Curiously, some candidates were successful in answering this question but not the equivalent part of the previous question.

Marking Scheme: Explains both. Also produces a judgement or evaluation. 

Successes:

  • Soviet oil exploration in Pakistan in 1961
  • India accept Western arms in Indo-Chinese War 1962
  • £11 million loan to Pakistan in 1963
  • Ayub Khan visits USSR in 1965 – improves understanding
  • Soviets hold Peace Conference between Pakistan and India 1966
  • Soviet arms supplied to Pakistan from 1968
  • Bhutto visits USSR in 1972
  • USSR support for building a steel mill

Failures:

  • Liaquat Khan visits USA rather than USSR in 1949
  • Soviet pro-Indian stance on Kashmir
  • Pakistan joins USA-sponsored military pacts in 1954 and 1955
  • USSR gives economic and technical assistance to India
  • Pakistan refuses USSR aid in 1956 USA spy plane scandal 1960 – plane took off from Pakistan Pakistan involvement in USA-Chinese diplomatic ties in 1971 leads to greater pro-Indian support by USSR
  • Pakistan support for Afghanistan in war with USSR in 1979
  • USSR unhappy with Pakistan’s nuclear programme

Q Why did Pakistan join the United Nations in 1947? [7] (J2007/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), candidates were required to explain why Pakistan joined the United Nations. Many suggested, with the benefit of hindsight, that the reasons were mainly to do with Pakistan solving all of its ills. Most of the detail was, however, justifiable and, as a result, many answers managed to achieve a level 3 mark.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Pakistan felt that membership of the United Nations would help their conflict with India over Kashmir by drawing the international community’s attention to it. Also Pakistan took it upon itself to become a spokesman of many Asian States and movements, especially Muslim countries. Other relevant issues included the World Bank and the Canal Water Dispute.

Q Why did Pakistan distrust India so much between 1971 and 1988? [7] (J2007/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), many answers concentrated on the problems relating to Kashmir with few extending their responses to the problems related to the legacy of war, the nuclear testing programme and the after-effects of Indira Gandhi’s assassination.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Pakistan was unhappy with the Simla agreement signed with India following the war. In return for the release of 90,000 prisoners of war, Pakistan agreed not to pursue a solution to the Kashmir problem in international forums. This annoyed Pakistan which had sought a solution through the United Nations. Pakistan was also shocked at India’s nuclear test programme in 1974. It raised real fears that its neighbour had a nuclear capability. Relations became even worse when India suspected that Pakistan was training Sikh extremists and when Indira Gandhi was assassinated by a Sikh in 1984. Further, relations were strained by the on-going legacy of wars between the two countries.

Q How successful was Pakistan in its relationship with the USA between 1947 and 1988? Explain your answer. [14] (J2008/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: Part (c) saw some good answers. Those who scored well did so because they considered, as the question instructed them, the relative success of Pakistan’s relationship with the USA during 1947-88. The tendency in previous years was for many to describe in chronological order all they know about the events that shaped such a relationship. Such answers ignored the command in the question and so tended to be awarded Level 2 for a straightforward narrative of the relationship. However, in recent years there has been a vast improvement in candidate responses to such answers. This year was no exception, with many attempting to address positive and negative aspects of such a relationship. Such answers achieved Level 4. Teachers need to guide their candidates in how to approach such a question: avoiding the chronological and rote-learning approach and, instead, offering an analysis of successes and of failures.

Marking Scheme: Explains both. Also produces a judgement or evaluation. 

Successes:

  • 1950 Liaquat Ali Khan visits United States.
  • Willing to join US in anti-communism pack in return for military aid.
  • Joins SEATO and CENTO.
  • Soviet War against Afghanistan in 1979 sees substantial military and economic aid for Pakistan which sees Pakistan as third highest recipient of US aid.

Failures:

  • US provides military aid to India during its war with China in 1962 – places strain on relations. Pakistan turns to China for friendship in 1962.
  • US places arms embargo on India and Pakistan during 1965 war which badly affected Pakistan.
  • Bhutto leaves SEATO.
  • American aid suspended in 1977 and again in 1979.

Q Why did Pakistan support the Palestinian cause between 1947 and 1988? [7] (N2008/P1/5b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), there was generally a good attempt to answer the question which asked for the reasons why Pakistan has supported the Palestinian cause. Most answers were able to explain a number of reasons why this happened. Candidates appeared confident and well prepared for answering this question.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.

Pakistanis identify themselves with the Palestinians as fellow Muslims who should be supported in their Cause. The objective of the OIC, of which Pakistan is a member, is to promote harmony and co-operation between Muslim nations. The incident of the Al-Aqsa Mosque was discussed at the first meeting of the OIC and support offered to the Palestinians. At the Second Conference in 1974, more specific support was forthcoming.

Q How successful was Pakistan in its relationship with India between 1947 and 1988? [14] (N2008/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c), candidates were required to explain and make comments on how successful was Pakistan’s relationship with India. Again, the temptation was that candidates merely described the relationship, but they did tend to have a knowledge that was generally good, with some answers attempting to explain the successes and failures in this relationship. However, most candidates found difficulty in explaining this relationship. Instead, they provided a narrative answer, thus failing to score marks in Levels 3 or 4. Equally, many others in describing the relationship tried to say it was (un)successful, but failed to explain why. Centres need to seek ways to ensure their candidates are equipped with the necessary confidence to identify such questions and the necessary skills to answer such questions appropriately.

Marking Scheme: Explains the successes AND failures. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Successes:

  • Agreement regarding border between East Bengal and Assam 1948
  • Minorities Agreement 1950 Simla Accord 1972 

Failures:

  • Kashmir
  • 1965 and 1971 Wars
  • Nuclear arms race
  • Aftermath of Indira Gandhi’s assassination

Q How successfully did India and Pakistan handle the Kashmir issue between 1947 and 1988? Explain your answer. [14] (Specimen 2010/P1/4c)

Marking Scheme: Explains successes and failures. Also produces a judgement or evaluation. Successes:

  • A cease-fire was arranged in January 1948 leaving Kashmir divided between India and Pakistan. 
  • From 1949 an official cease-fire line was agreed between India and Pakistan and was to be patrolled by UN troops. 
  • Pakistan kept up pressure on India by appealing to the UN whenever Indian moves tried to integrate Indian-occupied Kashmir into India.
  • In 1957 the UN reconfirmed that Kashmir was a disputed territory and that a final solution should be settled by a UN-supervised plebiscite. 
  • India promised to hold a plebiscite in Kashmir to determine its future.

Failures:

  • War on at least 2 occasions between the 2 countries. 
  • Plebiscite still not been held. 
  • Continues to be a source of conflict between the two nations.

Q How successful was Pakistan’s relationship with the USSR between 1947 and 1988? Explain your answer. [14] (Specimen 2010/P1/5c)

Marking Scheme: Explains both successes and failures. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Successes:

  • Soviet oil exploration in Pakistan in 1961
  • India accepted Western arms in Indo-Chinese War 1962
  • $11 million loan to Pakistan in 1963
  • Ayub Khan visits USSR in 1965 – improves understanding Soviets hold Peace Conference between Pakistan and India 1966 Soviet arms supplied to Pakistan from 1968
  • Bhutto visits USSR in 1972
  • USSR support for building a steel mill

Failures:

  • Liaquat Khan visits USA rather than USSR in 1949
  • Soviet pro-Indian stance on Kashmir
  • Pakistan joins USA sponsored military pacts in 1954 and 1955
  • USSR gives economic and technical assistance to India
  • Pakistan refuses USSR aid in 1956
  • U2 spy plane scandal 1960 – US plane took off from Pakistan
  • Pakistan involvement in USA-Chinese diplomatic ties in 1971 leads to greater pro-Indian support by USSR
  • Pakistan support for Afghanistan in war with USSR in 1979
  • USSR unhappy with Pakistan’s nuclear programme

Q Why did Pakistan join the United Nations in 1947? [7] (J2010/P1/4b)

Examiner Comments: In part (b), candidates had to explain why Pakistan joined the United Nations in 1947. Most answers were focused and candidates generally gave accurate an- swers and were able to score within Level 3. Most answers focused correctly on Pakistan’s need for aid and on outside agencies to help with the problems with India after partition.

Marking Scheme: Explains reasons.
Pakistan felt that membership of the United Nations would help their conflict with India over Kashmir by drawing the international community’s attention to it. Also Pakistan took it upon itself to become a spokesman of many Asian states and movements, especially Muslim countries. Other issues included the World Bank and the Canal Water Dispute.

Q How successful was Pakistan in its relationship with Afghanistan between 1947 and 1999? [14] (J2010/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c), there were some good answers to the question about Pakistan’s relationship with Afghanistan. Many candidates had a good knowledge of the relationship between the two countries and were able to comment on the level of success or failure of this, and there were some good answers that achieved 10 or 11 marks within Level 4. However, there was a significant minority of candidates who adopted a chronological narrative of the relationship between the two countries and failed to comment on any successes or failures and, as such, were unable to secure a mark beyond Level 2.

Marking Scheme: Explains both. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
Successes:

  • Leaders of the two countries visited each other which helped to improve relationships between them. 
  • Zahir Shah wanted to be friendly with Pakistan and during the 1965 War remained neutral despite pressure from India and Russia.
Failures:
  • Afghanistan violated a trade agreement on several occasions. 
  • Diplomatic relations were severed due to hostility between the two countries but later renewed. 
  • During the Afghan – Russian War, Afghanistan violated Pakistan airspace and bombed Pakistani areas. 
  • Problems relating to drugs, armed robberies, kidnappings and gun battles between rival gangs in the border region. 
  • Increase in terrorist problems.

Q How successful was Pakistan in its relationship with China between 1947 and 1999? [14] (N2010/P1/5c)

Examiner Comments: In part (c), there were some good answers to the question about Pakistan’s relationship with Afghanistan. Many candidates had a good knowledge of the relationship between the two countries and were able to comment on the level of success or failure of this, and there were some good answers that achieved 10 or 11 marks within Level 4. However, there was a significant minority of candidates who adopted a chronological narrative of the relationship between the two countries and failed to comment on any successes or failures and, as such, were unable to secure a mark beyond Level 2.

Marking Scheme: Explains both. Also produces a judgement or evaluation. 

Successes:

  • Support for China joining UN in 1952.
  • Boundary issues settled in 1963 agreement.
  • Trade developed in 1960s – a $60 million long-term interest free loan regarding import of machinery.
  • China permitted PIA to use any airport in 1963, in face of opposition from USA.
  • Increased numbers of visitors from China – journalists, engineers, scientists etc.
  • China gave Pakistan full support during 1965 war with India, including military aid 1978. Karakoram Highway provided first road link and opened 2 countries up to trade and tourism. 1986 nuclear power treaty signed.

Failures:

  • 1950s saw a cooling off as Pakistan supported pro-USA policies.
  • Concerns during 1950s about border issues.
  • In 1959 Pakistan voted against China’s admission to UN and condemned military action in Tibet. 
  • During the 1971 war with India, China withdrew support for Pakistan due to opposition from USSR which supported India.
  • During 1990s China wanted to develop relations with other countries, especially India.
  • China hinted during this time that Pakistan might compromise over Kashmir.
  • China concerned that Pakistan might stir up Muslims living just over the border in China.

Q How successfully did India and Pakistan handle the Kashmir issue between 1947 and 1999? Explain your answer. [14] (N2011/P1/4c)

 Examiner Comments: Candidates who answered question 4 were probably attracted to part (c), which required them to explain how successfully India and Pakistan handled the Kashmir issue between 1947 and 1999. The number of marks achieved depended on candidates’ ability to explain their answers rather than adopt a narrative approach. The best candidates focused on explaining how the Kashmir issue had been handled and analysed the success or otherwise of this. 

Marking Scheme: Explains successes and failures. Also produces a judgement or evaluation. Successes:

  • A cease-fire was arranged in January 1948, leaving Kashmir divided between India and Pakistan. 
  • From 1949, an official cease-fire line was agreed between India and Pakistan and was to be patrolled by UN troops. 
  • Pakistan kept up pressure on India by appealing to the UN whenever Indian moves tried to integrate Indian-occupied Kashmir into India. 
  • In 1957, the UN reconfirmed that Kashmir was a disputed territory and that a final solution should be settled by a UN-supervised plebiscite. 
  • India promised to hold a plebiscite in Kashmir to determine its future.

Failures:

  • War has broken out on at least 2 occasions between the 2 countries. 
  • Plebiscite still not been held. 
  • In 1987, elections were rigged by India in an attempt to show popular support for its occupation. 
  • In 1999, Kargil crisis brought threat of nuclear war between the two sides. 
  • Kashmir continues to be a source of conflict between the two nations.

Q Source: During the 1950s the Cold War intensified as the Americans feared the spread of a communist advance in Third World countries. The USA desperately needed allies and Pakistan needed economic and military aid. During the late 1950s Pakistan became a close ally of the USA. In 1960 the U2 crisis occurred.

Q Describe Pakistan’s involvement in the U2 crisis. [4] (N2011/P1/5a)

Examiner Comments: The short answer question on the U2 crisis was usually well answered with generally 2 or 3 marks being achieved.

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:

1960, spy flights over USSR, Gary Powers shot down, flown from a US base in Pakistan, USSR angry with Pakistan threatening military action, told USA could no longer use airbase unless destination known of aircraft, showed how close the two countries had become. 

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