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Grammar



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Tenses

 Singular
 Plural
 Pastwas, did, said, had
were, did, said, had
 Presentis, does, says, has
are, do, say, have





Phrases Tips

Subjects, Objects and Possessive Forms

To understand how to use "who," "whom," and "whose," you first have to understand the difference between subjects, objects, and possessive forms.

Subjects do an action:

- He loves movies.
- She goes to school.
- We enjoy Chinese food.

Objects receive an action:

- The teachers like him.
- Thomas knows her.
- The actor smiled at us.

Possessive forms tell us the person something belongs to:

- His bike is broken.
- I like her new book.
- The teacher graded our homework.
- The children received their presents.

Who/Whom/Whose

"Who" is a Subject Pronoun

"Who" is a subject pronoun like "he," "she" and "we" in the examples above. We use "who" to ask which person does an action or which person is a certain way.

Examples:

  • Who made the birthday cake?
  • Who is in the kitchen?
  • Who is going to do the dishes?

"Whom" is an Object Pronoun

"Whom" is an object pronoun like "him," "her" and "us." We use "whom" to ask which person receives an action.

Examples:

  • Whom are you going to invite?
  • Whom did he blame for the accident?
  • Whom did he hire to do the job?

"Whose" is a Possessive Pronoun

"Whose" is a possessive pronoun like "his," "her" and "our." We use "whose" to find out which person something belongs to.

Examples:

  • Whose camera is this?
  • Whose dog is barking outside?
  • Whose cell phone keeps ringing?

"Who," "Whom" and "Whose" in Indirect Questions

The sentence below contains an example of an indirect question:

  • I don't know whom he invited.

Such sentences usually start with a phrase such as: "I am not sure" or "He doesn't know" or "We don't care." Just ignore the first part of the sentence and look at the indirect question when deciding whether to use "who," "whom" or "whose." Ask yourself if the indirect question requires a subject, object, or possessive form.

Examples:

  • He doesn't know who the boss of the company is. subject of the indirect question
  • I don't care whom you invite. object of the indirect question
  • She isn't sure whose car that is. "Whose" shows possession of car.

"Who," "Whom" and "Whose" in Adjective Clauses

The sentence below contains an example of an adjective clause:

  • I know the man who won the contest.

Adjective clauses are used to describe a noun in the main sentence. In the example above, the adjective clause tells us about "the man." Just ignore the main sentence and look at the adjective clause when deciding whether to use "who," "whom" or "whose." Ask yourself if the adjective clause requires a subject, object, or possessive form.

Examples:

  • We knew the actress who starred in the movie. subject of adjective clause
  • They hired the man whom we interviewed last week. object of adjective clause
  • She knew the family whose house we bought. "Whose" shows possession of house.

"Whom" Less Common

The form "whom" is becoming less and less common in English. Many native English speakers think "whom" sounds outdated or strange. This trend is particularly common in the United States. Especially when combined with prepositions, most people prefer to use "who" as the object pronoun. To most native English speakers, the examples below sound quite natural.

Examples:

  • Who did you come to the party with?
  • I don't know who he gave the book to.
  • That is the woman who I was talking to.
  • Who did you get that from?
  • Do you have any idea who he sold his car to?
  • That is the person who I got the information from.

More about Who, Whom, Whose

Subjects, Objects and Possessive Forms

To understand how to use "who," "whom," and "whose," you first have to understand the difference between subjects, objects, and possessive forms.

Subjects do an action:
He loves movies.
She goes to school.
We enjoy Chinese food.

Objects receive an action:

The teachers like him.
Thomas knows her.
The actor smiled at us.

Possessive forms tell us the person something belongs to:
His bike is broken.
I like her new book.
The teacher graded our homework.

"Who" is a Subject Pronoun

"Who" is a subject pronoun like "he," "she" and "we" in the examples above. We use "who" to ask which person does an action or which person is a certain way.

Examples:
Who made the birthday cake?
Who is in the kitchen?
Who is going to do the dishes?
"Whom" is an Object Pronoun

"Whom" is an object pronoun like "him," "her" and "us." We use "whom" to ask which person receives an action.

Examples:
Whom are you going to invite?
Whom did he blame for the accident?
Whom did he hire to do the job?
"Whose" is a Possessive Pronoun

"Whose" is a possessive pronoun like "his," "her" and "our." We use "whose" to find out which person something belongs to.

Examples:
Whose camera is this?
Whose dog is barking outside?
Whose cell phone keeps ringing?
"Who," "Whom" and "Whose" in Indirect Questions

The sentence below contains an example of an indirect question:
I don't know whom he invited.

Such sentences usually start with a phrase such as: "I am not sure" or "He doesn't know" or "We don't care." Just ignore the first part of the sentence and look at the indirect question when deciding whether to use "who," "whom" or "whose." Ask yourself if the indirect question requires a subject, object, or possessive form.

Examples:
He doesn't know who the boss of the company is. subject of the indirect question
I don't care whom you invite. object of the indirect question
She isn't sure whose car that is. "Whose" shows possession of car.
"Who," "Whom" and "Whose" in Adjective Clauses

The sentence below contains an example of an adjective clause:
I know the man who won the contest.

Adjective clauses are used to describe a noun in the main sentence. In the example above, the adjective clause tells us about "the man." Just ignore the main sentence and look at the adjective clause when deciding whether to use "who," "whom" or "whose." Ask yourself if the adjective clause requires a subject, object, or possessive form.

Examples:
We knew the actress who starred in the movie. subject of adjective clause
They hired the man whom we interviewed last week. object of adjective clause
She knew the family whose house we bought. "Whose" shows possession of house.
"Whom" Less Common

The form "whom" is becoming less and less common in English. Many native English speakers think "whom" sounds outdated or strange. This trend is particularly common in the United States. Especially when combined with prepositions, most people prefer to use "who" as the object pronoun. To most native English speakers, the examples below sound quite natural.

Examples:
Who did you come to the party with?
I don't know who he gave the book to.
That is the woman who I was talking to.
Who did you get that from?
Do you have any idea who he sold his car to?
That is the person who I got the information from.

Linking words / Connectives

The main linking words and phrases are grouped below according to the similarity of their meaning to
the three basic connectives and, or, but. Some can be used to link paragraphs and others can only be
used to link ideas within a paragraph.

 andor
but
 listing
 reformulation - expresses something in another way
 contrast - presents a different view
 transition replacement - expresses an alternative view
 concession - agrees that something is good, with limitations
 summary  
 reference  
 example  
 result/consequence  
 place - refers to things inside or outside the writing
  
 time - refers to other studies
  

Listing

Enumeration

  • first --> furthermore --> finally
  • one --> a second... --> a third ---> etc
  • firstly --> secondly --> thirdly --> etc
  • to begin/start with --> in the second place --> moreover --> to conclude
  • above all
  • last but not least
  • first and foremost
  • first and most importantly

Addition

  • reinforcement
    • above all
    • actually
    • additionally
    • again
    • also
    • as well (as)
    • besides
    • especially
    • further
    • furthermore
    • what is more
    • indeed
    • in addition
    • moreover
    • not only...but also...
    • notably
    • obviously
    • particularly
    • specifically
    • then
    • too
Comparison
    • also
    • both...and...
    • correspondingly
    • equally
    • in the same way
    • likewise
    • similarly
    • too

Transition

can lead to a new stage in the sequence of thought
  • now
  • regarding
  • turning to
  • with respect/regard to
  • as for
  • as to

Summary

a generalisation or summing up of what has preceded
  • altogether
  • hence
  • in brief
  • in conclusion
  • in short
  • overall
  • then
  • therefore
  • thus
  • to conclude
  • to sum up
  • to summarise

Reference

refers back to previous sentences
  • and
  • as follows
  • chiefly
  • for instance
  • for example
  • in other words
  • in particular
  • including
  • mainly
  • mostly
  • namely
  • notably
  • or
  • particularly
  • such as
  • that is

Example

  • for example
  • for instance
  • such as
  • to illustrate
  • as an illustration
  • to demonstrate

Result

expresses the consequence or result from what is implicit in the preceding sentence or sentences
  • accordingly
  • as a result
  • as a consequence
  • consequently
  • for this/that reason
  • hence
  • in order that
  • now
  • so
  • so that
  • the consequence is
  • the result is
  • then
  • therefore
  • thus

Place

  • above
  • adjacent
  • at the side
  • behind
  • below
  • elsewhere
  • here
  • in front
  • in the background
  • in the foreground
  • there
  • to the left/right

Time

  • after a while
  • afterwards
  • at last
  • at that time
  • at the same time
  • before
  • currently
  • earlier
  • eventually
  • finally
  • formerly
  • in the meantime
  • in the past
  • initially
  • later
  • meanwhile
  • now
  • once
  • presently
  • previously
  • shortly
  • simultaneously
  • since
  • soon
  • subsequently
  • then
  • thereafter
  • until
  • until now
  • whenever
  • while

Reformulation

expresses something in another way
  • in other words
  • in that case
  • or rather
  • that is
  • that is to say
  • to put it (more) simply

Replacement

expresses an alternative to what has preceded
  • again
  • alternatively
  • another possibility would be
  • better/worse still
  • on the other hand
  • rather
  • the alternative is

Contrast

  • by (way of) contrast
  • conversely
  • in comparison
  • in fact
  • in reality
  • instead
  • on the contrary
  • on the one hand...on the other hand
  • then

Concession

  • admittedly
  • after all
  • all the same
  • although
  • although this may be true
  • at the same time
  • besides
  • despite
  • doubtless
  • even if/though
  • in spite of
  • naturally
  • nevertheless
  • no doubt
  • notwithstanding
  • only
  • still
  • under certain circumstances
  • up to a point
  • even so
  • however
  • while
  • yet

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