Moment of a force (M) about a point O is the product of the force (F) and the perpendicular distance (D) from the point to the line of action of the force.
Moment = Force x Distance
SI Unit: Newton Metre (Nm)
The turning effect of a force depends on
- location of applied force
- perpendicular distance between the point of application of the force and the pivot
When a body is in equilibrium, the sum of clockwise moments about the balanced point is equal to the sum of anticlockwise moments about the same point (pivot).
Total clockwise moment = Total anticlockwise moment
When the clockwise moment is not equal to the anticlockwise moment, there is a resultant moment and the object will rotate in the direction of resultant moment.
If there is no resultant moment, the object is balanced.
The centre of gravity (CG) of a body is an imaginery point where the whole weight of the body seems to act in any orientation.
The CG of a regular object is at the centre.
The CG of an irregular object is determined using a plumb line.
If a body is hanging freely at rest, its CG is always vertically below the pivot, thus the plumb line method works. It can only be used for flat, irregular objects.
Stability is a measure of the body's ability to maintain its original position.
3 types of stability:
1. Stable equilibrium
Object will return to original position after slight disturbance.
2. Unstable equilibrium
Object will fall after slight disturbance
3. Neutral equilibrium
Object remains in new position after slight disturbance.
To increase the stability of a body, its base area should be increased, and the height of its centre of gravity should be decreased.
By the principle of moments, taking moments about the pivot
Anticlockwise moment = Clockwise moment
F x 1m = 200N x 0.4m
F = 80N
The reading on the spring balance is 80N.
a. swinging on a swing
b. sliding down a slide
c. moving up and down on the see-saw
d. rowing a boat
2. Which one of the following quantities is zero when a uniform rod is supported in the middle?
3. When a body is at rest, it obeys the
a. principle of momentum
b. Archimede's principle
c. principle of moments
d. principle of inertia
4. A uniform metre ruler of weight 0.2N balances at the 60-cm mark when a weight W is placed at the 80-cm mark. What is the value of W?
5. Which one of the following measuring instruments works on the principle of moments?
a. spring balance
b. single pan beam balance
d. vernier calipers
6. A uniform rod of weight 5N and length 1m is pivoted at a point 20cm from one of its ends. A weight is hung from the other end so that the rod balances horizontally. What is the value of the weight?
7. An object will not turn if the applied force on it
a. does not reach its maximum
b. does not produce a moment
c. passes through its centre of mass
d. passes through its centre of gravity
8. Levers are classified into different types according to the position of its
a. fulcrum, load and effort
b. centre of gravity
c. centre of mass
d. moment and load
9. Which one of the following statements does not describe a pair of scissors?
a. its fulcrum lies between the load and the effort
b. it is a lever of type 1
c. it works on the turning effect of a force
d. it does not have a centre of mass
10. Which of the following levers is of type 2?
c. fishing rod
d. ice tongs
11. The centre of mass of a body
a. has a fixed position
b. depends on the pull of gravity
c. is always outside the body
d. must be in a solid part of the body
12. A drinking glass has a low centre of gravity because
a. it is heavy
b. it is tall
c. it has a broad base
d. its contents are heavy
13. When a body is in neutral equilibrium, any displacement will
a. raise its centre of gravity
b. lower its centre of gravity
c. neither raise nor lower its centre of gravity
d. return the body to its original position
2. A boy of weight 600N sits on the see-saw as shown at a distance of 1.5m from the pivot. What is the force F required at the other end to balance the see-saw?
3. A very light rod 40cm long is pivoted at the centre. A weight of 50N is placed at one end. Where is the place to put a weight of 200N in order that the rod is in equilibrium?
[5cm from the centre]
4. A very light rod 20cm long has weights of 60N and 40N at its ends. About which point can the rod balance horizontally?
[8cm from the 60N weight]
5. A uniform rod 1m long has masses of 100g and 40g at its ends. If it balances 30cm from one end, what is the weight of the rod?
6. The figure shows a uniform metre rule pivoted at the 50cm mark. 125g and 200g weights hang from the rule as shown.
b. State, without calculation, how the rule with the two masses hanging as shown in the figure could be balanced without using any extra mass.
[40cm from the pivot on the side of the 200g mass]