Effects of human activity on the ecosystem

Living Things in their Environment


1. Deforestation


  • soil erosion

  • flooding

  • loss of habitat

  • loss of valuable species

  • climatic changes

  • upsets oxygen and carbon dioxide balance

2. Air pollution

Caused by

  • burning of fossil fuel

  • exhaust fumes from motor vehicles

  • burning of garbage

3. Water pollution

Caused by

  • discharge of untreated sewage

  • discharge of inorganic waste

  • excessive use of chemical fertilizers

  • use of pesticides

Reasons for clearing forests/ deforestation

To provide:

  • land for cultivation, urban development, grazing

  • timber for construction and making paper

  • firewood


Pollution is the process by which harmful substances are added to the environment

  • air pollution from: forest fires, volcanic eruptions, biological decomposition, human activities

  • water pollution from: human activities


Conservation is necessary for the protection of plant and animal species to maintain a stable and balanced ecosystem

Conservation measures:

  • reducing or eliminating pollution through education and legislation

  • controlling growth of human population

  • conserving natural resources. Recycling important for conservation which conserves non-renewable natural resources but also

    • reduced the problem of waste disposal and environmental pollution

    • is economical as it saves energy and money

  • recovering wildlife, especially those species that are in danger of extinction