Animal cells exchange material across the cell membrane
fuels for energy
waste (urea, CO2)
Importance of circulatory system
carries fluids and dissolved material throughout the body
cells are never far from body fluid
only a few cells away from blood
Circulatory system consists of
circulatory fluid = blood
tubes = blood vessels
muscular pump = heart
What substances are transported
products from digestive sysem
waste products from cells
water, salts, nitrogenous waste products (urea)
white blood cells etc
prevent backflow of blood as it circulates
right and left AV valves
close as blood leaves the ventricles and enters the arteries
Blood pathway in body
Right side of heart
right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs
Left side of heart
left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to body
Veins --> Vena cava --> Right atrium --> Right ventricle --> Pulmonary artery
Left atrium --> left ventricle --> Aorta --> Arteries --> Capillaries --> Veins
about every 0.8sec
Diastole: heart relaxes and blood flows into chambers (0.4s)
Systole: Heart contracts
first atria (0.1s)
then ventricles (0.3s)
controls heart rate
regulated by nervous and endocrine systems
two heart beat sounds: lub-dup
Structured Question Worked Solutions
1. Compare and contrast the structure of arteries and veins with reference to their functions.
Arteries carry blood away from the heart while veins carry blood back to the heart.
Arteries have thick muscular walls to withstand the high pressure of the blood being pumped out of the heart.
The walls are also elastic so that they can stretch and recoil, helping to push blood along the artery in spurts.
The blood pressure in the veins is much lower than in the arteries, and blood flows more slowly and smoothly in veins.
Hence the walls of veins are not as thick and muscular as those of arteries of about the same size. Veins also contain less elastic tissue.
Most veins have interval valves along their length to prevent backflow of blood. Arteries do not contain internal valves.
2. Describe the route taken by the blood from the intestine to the kidney. List all major blood vessels and organs involved.
Blood flows from the intestine via the hepatic portal vein to the liver, then via the hepatic vein and the posterior vena cava to the heart, then via the pulmonary artery to the lungs, then via the pulmonary vein back to the heart, and finally via the aortic arch and the dorsal aorta and the renal artery to the kidney.
3. The diagram below shows the transfer of materials between capillaries, lymph capillaries and tissue fluid. Describe what happens at points A and B.
Walls of capillaries are selectively permeable.
At A, plasma is driven out of the blood capillary by hydrostatic pressure.
Red blood cells and blood proteins are retained in the capillary.
Tissue fluid is formed from plasma.
Tissue fluid delivers nutrients to cells and removes waste products.
Soluble substances, for example, glucose, diffuse into cells. Cells give out waste products, for example, carbon dioxide, to the capillary at B.